The dispersion of Eden to the World II [1]. By Fabian Massa

Translated from Spanish to english with Google Traductor.

Mesoamerican Cultures [2]
Before joining American cultures, back to watch the migration routes [3] based on population genetics on the map that follows:
Image
This map is made on the basis of genetic information. DNA studies suggest that all humans today descend from a group of African ancestors, as we saw in Chapter I, according to the Population Genetics all men are descended from one Adam Chromosomal Y [4] and all women of Eva Mitochondrial [5]. The map shows how scientists see the origin of the migratory routes of humanity: I have managed to form based on an advanced laboratory DNA computer, which contribute (with a blood sample that is analyzed genetically) hundreds of thousands of people around the world. In this research effort and unprecedented real time, the Genographic Project closes gaps of what science knows today about the stories of ancient migrations of humanity. This project is a partnership of five-year investigation led by National Geographic Explorer resident, Dr. Spencer Wells. Dr. Wells and a group of internationally renowned scientists and researchers from IBM, genetic and computational technologies used art to analyze historical patterns in DNA from participants around the world, and this serves to better understand human genetic roots .
We can see that the blue and yellow parts of Africa to the world, entering America by the Bering Strait, following their way south and west covering the Americas.

Special features of Mesoamerican Cultures
Mesoamerican cultures are of enormous wealth, a brief study of each of them merit a collection of books, as indeed there.
In fact, throughout Mesoamerica can be considered a “culture area with strong temporal depth”:
Their civilizations share ethnic and linguistic traits, crops, one calendar ritual [6] of 260 days and similar religious concepts.

However, the best way to distinguish them is the artistic,
ceramics, crafts, religion and political organization [7].
In this paper we will only give a notice of the most important and well known as the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, Inca, and Puerto Hormiga Caral. We will see some elements of his religion that resemble those observed in cultures views in Part I.

Some peculiarities of the American cultures:
One is no doubt, that developed without any influence from foreign cultures.
Another peculiarity is that in each geographic region developed a culture that did not affect others outside its sphere of influence, as if it happened in the rest of the world (except Australia).
When “discovered” America in 1492, was like discovering a new world. So if there was no contact between the Old and the New World before then, how to explain the following situations:
Most cultures, including pre-Columbian American [8], has in its collective memory the story of the Flood (in the book “From Eden to the Nations” try some of the legends of the Flood 500).
There are similarities between the more developed Amerindian cultures and cultures of the Middle East from 5th to 3rd millennium BC. The most important are given in the forms of worship, architecture and building their temples.

The Olmecs
Image
Left: Main pyramid at La Venta, the oldest pyramid in Mesoamerica.
The Olmec culture [9] or mother culture is the name given to a culture that developed from 1200 to 450 BC This culture developed in the southeastern state of Veracruz and western Tabasco, Mexico. Do not know the origins of this town. The Olmec civilization was formed mainly around three ceremonial centers: San Lorenzo, La Venta and Tres Zapotes. These ceremonial centers were based on cities, and they were built of earth and adobe buildings, so few remains have survived. They built pyramids with temples on top, something already seen in all Middle Eastern cultures. Buildings also built around central courtyards, typical of later civilizations in the area.
Image
As Middle Eastern Nations, the Olmec were polytheists and their gods and goddesses were associated with the forces of nature and activities, such as agriculture and crafts. Besides his religion was dynastic, where the genealogy of their rulers started from mythological deities, as was the case with the Greeks, the Egyptians, the Canaanites, the Semitic-Babylonian, Sumerian, etc. ….
The Olmec religion, through legends and myths justifying, explaining and ruling lineages legalized, social inequalities, supernatural forces and established links between these and the governors, that is was a complex and highly organized religion.
The Olmecs, like the Egyptians, developed a hieroglyphic script for their language, which makes the Olmec writing in the oldest in the Western Hemisphere.
Image
Olmec head, notice Negroid features.
Had blacks in Central America, 1,800 years before the slave traders reintroduced on the continent from Africa?
The huge basalt stone sculptures [10] were carried great distances from their place of origin to where they were found. Monumental sculptures are believed to represent their first kings warriors. As these sculptures were able to mobilize considerable weight over long distances and how they survived the difficult terrain are questions still unanswered. The same is true of the pyramids of Egypt and the stones of Easter Island.

Mayan Culture
About this complex civilization are libraries of information, studies and thesis. Our intention in this chapter is to give a leaner look, highlighting those features that this culture has in common with those already studied in the Middle East.
The Maya civilization inhabited a vast region called Mesoamerica in the territory now comprised of five southeastern states of Mexico:
Campeche
Chiapas
Quintana Roo
Tabasco
Yucatan
And also in the territories of Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador.
This culture lasted for three millennia (1300 BC to the Spanish conquest in 1697 d. C.) and reached a very high level of development and practice survives in the descendants of the ancient Mayans, speaking languages ​​derived from ancient language.
Archaeological evidence shows the Maya started to build ceremonial architecture approximately 3,000 years ago (circa 1000 BC). Cults practiced the dead, had agricultural and fertility cults. Their society was divided into very distinct social classes:
The nobility made up of priests, warriors, bureaucrats and businessmen, exercised power and belonged to this group only by birth.
Skilled artisans, who produced the objects used by the nobility to dress, decorate their homes and demonstrate their range.
The peasants who lived scattered around cities and taxed a third of what they produced to the nobility.
The slaves, prisoners of war who were sold to do work or to be sacrificed in some ritual to rain, the earth or the sun.

Religion
Image
They were polytheists. Its importance was very great, if we take into account that was strongly linked to political control, the ideology that sustained the Mayan civilization and as the sciences, was also in the hands of a specialized group of the priests, the As in the Sumerian civilization and the Egyptian.
The Mayan religion was three fundamental characteristics:
Naturalists Aspects Religion: The gods were the elements, atmospheric phenomena and celestial bodies. (Similar to all religions in the Middle East with the exception of Hebrew).
Dualistic Religion: It started from the principle that good and evil are equally divine (similar Persian Zoroastrianism). The gods of good were in constant struggle with evil gods, but they were so inseparable from each other as day and night. It is the same principle of Yin and Yang dualistic Buddhist.
Upstairs Ixtab traditional representation, goddess of suicide.

Religious activities included:
Rituals
The sacrifices: They made human sacrifices, usually prisoners of war or persons whose birth had been designed for that purpose.
Divination
Astronomy
Astrology and calculation time. Hence the now popularly known as “Mayan Prophecies on the end of the world in December of 2012.”
Physical Traits
Wikipedia [11]: An American research by Sylvanus G. Morley on Yucatecan Mayan population showed that the average height was 154.61 cm and 142.65 cm, weight of 52.86 kg and 50 kg … According to archaeological evidence (study of the monuments and art of antiquity ) and ethnographic (research, description and classification of races or peoples), it follows that the Maya have broad head (brachycephaly), aquiline nose, straight black hair, high cheekbones, forehead wide (wide and flat) and almond eyes (with a pronounced and noticeable eyelid crease giving them a distinctly oriental touch) dark. The neck is short and the shoulders are wide.

Maya cosmogony
The Maya conceived of the cosmos consists of 13 overlapping heaven on earth. On each presided thirteen sky gods, called Oxlahuntiku. Under the land had other nine heavens, also in layers, over which presided the Bolontikú. The last of these was the Mitnal underground heaven, the Maya equivalent of Tartarus Greek and Hebrew Sheol, which was chaired by Ah Puch, “Lord of Death”.
They believed that, before civilization had been other which were destroyed by a flood. The world was supported by four brothers keepers (One point in common with the Greek Atlas) called Bacabes, located at the four corners

Rites
The pyramids were are your temples and worshipers were attending ceremonies outdoors, below in the courtyard surrounding the pyramid. They requested their gods the gifts of life, health and livelihoods, in exchange of which performed a series of offerings and purifying ceremonies immersed in a complex ritual that included the sacrifice of young virgins and newborn babies, a point common with cults and sacrifices to Moloch, Milcom and Chemosh.
They had a cult of death and ancestors, which were in “household gods” who worshiped them (They kept their skulls and they made offerings of water, food and flowers). In the Middle East it was the cult of the teraphim (household gods) in Egypt embalmed the dead and built replicas of their homes, where family the “visiting” to bring offerings. And they are ultimately the same practices that have many today who retain ashes of their dead in small urns, which also offerings of flowers and candlelight.

Man’s mission, according to the Maya worldview
The mission of man is to worship and feed the gods. But in the same way that men eat corn, and this is a food item, the gods as supernatural beings should feed a food supernatural cosmic energy that was in the blood and the heart of the sacrificed. Mesoamerican cultures practiced ritual cannibalism (ie not as a basis for their food, but for religious purposes). Like other cultures that occupied the territory of present Mexico (the Olmec and Aztec) Mayan civilization was warrior, were constantly armed raiding neighboring villages. One reason was that they needed fresh blood supply to their gods: Some of the prisoners were destined for the provision of victims for sacrifice. If we look at the news of Mexico today, we see that is one of the countries with the greatest violence and murder: Did the territorial demons continue to demand their share of blood, which is satisfied by the interminable wars between drug cartels?

Architecture
Chichen Itza in Mexico.
Image
Tikal in Guatemala.
Image
Palenque Temple.
Image
The Mayan pyramids were built of limestone, very abundant in the area. At the top of the pyramid was the altar of sacrifice and this is the heart of the temple. The architectural design is very similar to the pyramids of Egypt and various overlapping platforms connected by stairs, we have seen in the ziggurats of Iraq. Some of the pyramids and mortuary monuments also officiated (as in Egypt), taking into their secret chambers remains of a senior leader or king.

Writing System
Image
Hieroglyphics used in the city of Palenque.
The Maya writing system is similar to Egyptian hieroglyphics used it (it has no relation to that language). The Maya had a rich literature, referring to the few still existing pre-Columbian Maya writings, Michael D. Coe, an archaeologist at Yale University said:
Our knowledge of ancient Maya thought represents only a tiny fraction of the whole picture, because of the thousands of books in which the full extent of their rituals and knowledge were recorded, only four have survived to modern times (as though all that posterity to know of us were based upon three prayer books and Pilgrim’s Progress). Michael D. Coe, The Maya, London: Thames and Hudson, 4th ed., 1987, p. 161.
There are few examples in the literature of this culture, as many Maya codices (books) were destroyed by time, moisture (organic material were written in, which unfortunately rotted) while others were destroyed by Spanish missionaries, and only to save four:
  1. The Dresden Codex
  2. The Codex Tro-Cortesiano
  3. The Codex Peresiano
  4. The Grolier Codex
  5. The Books of Chilam Balam
  6. E Popol Vuh
  7. The Annals of the Cakchiquesles

Mathematics
The Mayans used a base-twelve numbering, as used to count the fingers and toes.
Image
Left: The Mayan numbers from 0 to 19.
Calendar
Like the Babylonians, used a very accurate solar calendar
Maya influence zone.



THE AZTEC [12] Ó MEXICAS
The Mexica or Aztecs are a nation whose civilization flourished in central Mexico Valley.
Image
The Mexican State, commonly called Aztec Empire, was the consequence of the territorial expansion of the city-state Mexico-Tenochtitlan. The Aztec Empire flourished in the fourteenth century Mesoamerica.
The economy was prosperous, was subjected to a lot of people they demanded payment of taxes. Another factor that enabled the prosperity was the use of advanced agricultural techniques. Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, was built on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco. The Aztecs created a technique that allowed them to grow on water: the chinampas. It was ground pools, branches and plants floating on lakes anchored with the bats, covered with soil and cultivated them. They also built agricultural terraces in mountainous areas. They used plant and animal manures.
Image
Provinces tributary of the Triple Alliance before the arrival of the Spanish [13].
The expansion of the Mexica domain was the result of its military organization and the value of their soldiers in battles and the ability of its rulers.
The dealers were a kind of force it analyzed the enemy spy in their cities while conducting operations. Then the information gathered by the army happened who used it to conquer these territories. Also annexing territories to the empire through marriage arranged between the two peerages, although this was much less common.
The tribute was Tenochtitlan from all regions of the empire: food, textiles, precious items, and also humans captive for slaughter. That wealth Mexico-Tenochtitlan turned into a dazzling city.

The Aztecs and the war [14]
The base of the Mexican religion was to appease the gods with human sacrifices. So says the historian Victor W. von Hagen [15]:
“War and religion, at least to the Aztecs, were inseparable. Belong to each other. In order to obtain appropriate prisoners-victims to sacrifice to the gods, had incessant wars and even small arms was willing to incapacitate rather than kill, all to get the food for the gods: blood and heart. “
In 1486, more than 20,000 prisoners-victims were gathered for the dedication of the Great Pyramid of Huitzilopochtli [16], (Templo Mayor in Mexico [17]) Then, one after another victim snatched the heart is , to be offering it to God.
Representation of the main temple of the ancient Aztec city Tenochtitlan, now downtown Mexico City. The archaeological site was discovered by workers while performing Light Company to place wires underground excavations in 1978 [18]. You can see the architectural resemblance to the Babylonian ziggurats and pyramids of the Maya.

Pyramid of the Sun Mexico. Aztec Culture.
Image
Although most advanced construction materials and the Pyramid of the Sun in Mexico is fully comparable with the Step Pyramid at Saqqara in Egypt.

Step Pyramid of Saqqara, Egypt.
Image
Step Pyramid of Sakkara, Memphis city in Egypt, this consists of six steps or overlapping mastabas. It was built with bricks, and could survive the Babylonian constructions (also brick) due to the dry climate of Egypt. A Split of Dynasty IV pyramids stopped being staggered.
Image

Computer Reconstruction of the Ziggurat of Ur
Image
You can compare the very similar to the Mayan Temple’s image, both have an observatory at the top, as shown in the figure above, plus tiered terraces crossed by a central staircase, in both cases does not reach its summit.




Bibliography
Flyways and Haplogroups
[1] http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad% C3% A1n_cromosomal-Y
Olmec
Maya
Bibliography: Victor W. Von Hagen, The Aztec man and tribe. Ed Diana, Mexico
Stone Age in America
________________________________________
[1] This article was written by Adrian Pablos  & Fabian Massa.
[2] Mesoamerica (gr. Mesos = intermediate) is the Americas region comprising the southern half of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Belize and the western territories of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
[3] and Halogrupos.https Flyway :/ / genographic.nationalgeographic.com / genographic / lan / en / atlas.html; http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogrupohttps://genographic.nationalgeographic. com / genographic / lan / en / index.html
[4] http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad% C3% A1n_cromosomal-Y
[6] The 260-day calendar which was called Xihuitl or civilian, grouped into 13 months of 20 days, which was given the name Tonalpohualli between central villages, among the Mayan Tzolkin and Pije among the Zapotecs, whose beginning was from 1200. C., reflects the evolution of the use of measurement of time, not only to know what days you have to cultivate, what religious celebrations were due to perform, what was the movement of the stars, but was also used for divination purposes and establishment of the various destinies of men.
[8] Pre-Columbian: This is prior to the arrival in America of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
[10] Rock Basalt is a product of volcanic activity, very abundant on Earth.
[15] Bibliography: Victor W. Von Hagen, The Aztec man and tribe. Ed Diana, Mexico
[16] Huitzilopochtli was the chief deity of the Mexica, associated with the sun god.http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huitzilopochtli

Comentarios

Entradas populares de este blog

Reflexión. La parábola de las 10 vírgenes. By Fabian Massa

NEWS. Второй зверь. By Fabian Massa.

Reflexión. El primer discurso de Pedro y la conversión de los 3.000. By Fabian Massa.