+Study. Babylonian & Semitic Mythology. By Fabian Massa.



WHY THE TITLE.
According to the Word, when the Flood survivors landed in Turkey, began to multiply and move en bloc for territory. Thus came to Mesopotamia and settled:
1 There was a time when everyone in the world spoke the same language and used the same words. 2 When migrating eastward, they found a plain in the land of Babiloniay settled there. Genesis 11. New Living Translation (NLT)
Under the leadership of Nimrod, grandson of Ham, formed the Kingdom of Babel, then set out to build the Tower:
4 Then they said, “Come, let us build us a city with a tower that reaches to the sky. That will make us famous and keep us from disperse throughout the world. “ Genesis 11. New Living Translation (NLT)
It was then that the Lord confused their languages:
5 But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower that they were building, 6 and said, “Look! The people are united, and all speak the same language. After this, nothing that they propose to do will be impossible! 7 Let’s go down to confuse them with different languages, so they can not understand each other. “ Genesis 11. New Living Translation (NLT)

After the confusion of Babel, men could no longer understood and there was the Battle of Babel, because certainly for all, that region was “their place.” They had their families, their animals, their crops and everything they had built and treasured. The Great Nation (Sumeria?) Split three families, one for each descendant of Noah, each with its own language and customs:
The Japhethites, who took Anatolia, Greek mainland, islands of Greece, Italy, southern Russia and Eastern Europe, Persia and Media (Iran).
The beds, which inhabited Canaan, Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, northern coast of Africa, the Indus Valley.
The Semitic peoples, who took the present territories of northern Iraq – Assyria central and southern Iraq, later called Acadia and later Chaldean and the Arabian Peninsula: That is, the Semites did not move the territory, they would have been the big winners of Battle of Babel.

In this article, we will see the Semitic Babylonian mythology, direct continuation of the first religion after the Flood.
The main reference of Mesopotamian mythology is the division between Sumerian and Semitic deities. Indeed, the descendants of Shem, who remained in Babylon after the Battle of Babel, they adopted the Sumerian gods and their cults.
The mythology of the peoples of Mesopotamia is very intricate, being difficult to make a comprehensive analysis of all the myths and legends surrounding the rich history of this region. Like most mythologies, the Mesopotamian not a solid body of well-established characters, but:
The role of each god changed much throughout history. Even within the same time period, the same deity could be worshiped in a city-state, and yet be almost unknown in another.
The gods were the fate of kingdoms and cities in which they were worshiped: so, when Babylon became the most powerful kingdom also their chief god, Marduk, became the chief god, although until then had been a Irrelevant divinity. Also changing are the relationships among gods.
Semitic cosmogony – Babylonian [1]
Nammu (Abyss formless) created of herself to An (heaven) and Ki (earth). An YKi had a son named Enlil (the atmosphere), god of wind and storm. Enlil separated and separated the day from night. Enlil and Ki created animals, and plants. Men were created by Enki and Ki to serve the gods. Nammu Enki begat also [2].
The woman
Ki created with a rib of Enki a goddess, Nin-ti, meaning woman from the rib. Remember that the Bible tells how Yahweh creates Eve from Adam’s rib.
Paradise. Enki created a place where man could live without fear of animals (snakes, hyenas, scorpions and lions) a place without terror, but Enki found inappropriate behavior in humans and expelled. It’s basically the same story of the fall of Adam and Eve when they were dismissed from the Garden of Eden because of disobedience.
Enlil father of the gods:
Emesh (summer) god of harvest and agriculture.
Enten (winter) god of cattle.
These two gods had a dispute. A similar problem was entreAshnan (goddess of grain) and Lahar (goddess of livestock). After a binge fought. It is the same situation that exists between Abel and Cain the farmer shepherd in chapter IV of the book of Genesis.
The Flood. For 7 days and 7 nights rained non stop but Ziuzudra, warned by the god Utu, created a boat, where you saved seeds and animal specimens. When the rain stopped and the sun appeared, Ziuzudra made the sacrifice of a sheep to the god Utu.
Semitic religion – Babylonian
The Semites relign continued practicing the Sumerian Babel. They practiced a polytheistic religion, with anthropomorphic gods representing forces or presences in the world, as he would later Greek civilization, Egyptian, Canaanite, and much later the Romans.
How we saw in Chapter XX, the principle of religions [3] has its origin in Babylon. Recall some already seen:
The Tower of Babel is the “way” where the ruler “It rose” from the ground (natural) up the stairs (each step a degree of learning) reaching different “levels” (“spiritual states”) – the ziggurat of Babylon had seven storeys (12.8 meters each, ie a path seven spiritual levels) – from the earth to the place where they had “contact” with his divinity, during intercourse with the priestess (it was incarnated deity) is produced the “union of Heaven and Earth”, (the union of the spiritual sky-that is, the spirit embodied in the priestess and the earth-the carnal-represented by the president.
In this way, indirectly their union or agreement produced based on sex-one flesh = one spirit-between a human and a spirit [4]). This sexual union guaranteed a year of fertility for the fields, livestock and the inhabitants of the kingdom, and the general prosperity of the land. When the ruling came down, it was no longer an ordinary man, but a god. They were convinced that it was real, and acted accordingly, the tyrannical ruler so subjected to all his constituents, since for him were mere “mortals” to his “divine” service. This is the germ of the “spirit of Babylon” the root of all religions and principle of all evil.
The search for the “Union of the spiritual and naturally through sexual ritual”.
In the article “The Sons of God and Daughters of Men ‘union discussed with women spiritual beings, (Incubus and Succubus [5]) In the era postdiluvian spiritual manifestations were not present and directly [6 ], but indirect: In the sexual rite between the monarch and the priestess, both invoking their “gods” [7] to descend and they incorporate. Any representation on the Tower Temple is a “design” to be in the material (earth) as spiritually.
The permanence of the idea that this tower had to get to heaven is preserved in the religious idea overall binding Mesopotamia all the earthly with the heavenly in the pinnacle of the ziggurat. This idea that the common man can ascend to a temple to achieve rebind the natural and supernatural symbolism is given as the type of construction of the ziggurat: A temple on top of a platform, which is accessed by climbing a ladder. In modern religions and not made the covenant through sexual union, it is agreed by a ritual.
The meaning remains the same: The man who wants to raise from the natural to the spiritual. The problem is that the method chosen for this “lift” remains mechanical:
Climbing stairs
This same concept is what governs the construction of most of the temples of all religions of the world.
Here are some examples:
Image
Buddhist Temple of Angkor Wat, Cambodia.


Image

Simulation of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, Turkey.




Image
The Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral, built in neoclassical style, the temple is built on a slightly raised platform, which is accessed by a staircase. The same front and the inevitable roof supported by columns. An architectural concept identical to the Temple of Artemis, though much less marked.

Image
The minaret of the Mosque of Samarra, Iraq, has fifty-two meters high. It was built between the years 847 and 861 with mud and stones. He was for many years considered the holiest Islamic site. The resemblance to the Tower of Babel is great, not only in appearance but also in the materials used in its construction.

Mesopotamia, a region coveted
The region of Mesopotamia was going from one pole of military power to another power over time, very briefly mentioned:
Akkadian Empire, the XXII XXIV century B.C.
Assyrian Empire, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries B.C.
The government Syrians a nomadic Semitic people who dwelt in Aram, Mesopotamia, or “Aram of the two rivers” in Mesopotamia. The Syrians fled to the fertile areas of southern Mesopotamia and took control of the region.
After the Syrians it was the turn of the Chaldeans, who were a Semitic tribe of unknown origin. They settled in southern Mesopotamia in X century BC For his tongue is assumed to relate to the Syrians. But the Chaldeans were imposed on the other two elements of the population were:
The casitas (kashshû) were a people of uncertain origin who came to dominate Babylon between 1530 and 1155 ACC when they were defeated by Elamite tribes.
Other tribes of Semitic origin.

Syncretism
Each ethnic group that was coming to the region, syncretizing some local gods themselves, others adopted and added to any existing deity pantheon. This explains why we find several well defined group of major gods throughout history. On the one hand we have the “Triad Sumeria”, formed by An, Enlil and Enki, Sumerian gods, and on the other hand, the “Triad Semitic” composed of astral gods Sin, Ishtar and Shamash (Moon, Venus and Sun). Besides gods must be added to the Sumerian and Semitic tradition, as the various mother goddesses (especially the goddess Shala) or fertility gods and the elements (Dagan, Adad, etc..).

Religions transcend cultures and times.
Another issue to bear in mind is that religions and mythologies transcend cultures, borders and time, ended up being timeless. The myths of ancient religions such as Egyptian, Babylonian, Greek, Roman, Incan, Mayan, Aztec, just to name the most famous, is still studying today. And “products” of these religions still stand having been syncretized by other religions, some examples:
The Nativity Tree Nimrod – used today by the various Christian denominations
The celebration of the winter solstice [8] on December 24 – Christian Christmas celebration
The celebration of the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere – the Passover florida in Celtic and Saxon cultures. Easter eggs.
The city of the dead in Egypt – current cemeteries
Baal worship – Worship worldwide Carnival.
Mancia practice (as the Egyptian Tarot, for example) and Babylonian divination and then worldwide to date.
The horoscope, practice born in Babylon, is present today in every newspaper and many people read and gives the same value as the weather forecast.
Magical practices from Babel to this day:
Enchantment: The Latin “incantare” spell achieved through a song. It is an act of “magic” that seeks to subdue the will of a person through the song of a ritual formula
Spells: The spell or spell is a magical act intended to produce effects on reality through supernatural methods liturgical or ritual. When the target of the spell is to predict the future is called sorcery. Spells are commonplace, to the point that many TV programs, including children’s cartoons often include spells, magic, spiritualism, demonology, etc..
Magic: the hidden science that seeks to alter the natural supernatural way, sometimes making use of the help of demons.
Spell: It is the practice of reading the signs that apparently happen before an event, known not as divination, but as the art of interpreting the signals future events by acting in the present. All these practices are still alive in our society today.
Witchcraft: It lies in the esoteric arts practice and manipulation of supernatural forces.
Spiritualism practice summon the spirits of the dead.

Bibliography
Bible New Living Translation (NLT) on line:
http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=genesis% 2011 & version = NLT
History and ancient religions
[2] In Sumerian means Lord. Ki earth, wind or breath Lil. Then we Enki, lord of the wind. Enlil, lord of the wind, etc..
[3] Religion word composed of the prefix Re: Latin ligare ay back, fasten, join, tie. The meaning will then reattaching severed it.
[4] This type of relationship between humans and spiritual beings suggest in Genesis 6. This text indicates that there would be explicit and non-figurative. “The sons of God and daughters of men” topic in Chapter VII.
[5] The Incubus and Succubus demons would (male and female respectively) capable of having sexual contact with humans. In other cultural traditions are also similar entities. And besides being an ancient myth, for some people the existence of these creatures is a current and verifiable reality. Incubus and Succubus derived from the Latin words incubare (be above an attitude “masculine”) and sucubare (lying underneath an attitude “female”).
[6] Genesis 6.2
[7] It is very important to grasp this concept: the King assumed the role of “god” (representing “Heaven”) and the priestess representing the goddess Ishtar (goddess “Mother”) The priestess always represents the “Earth”, which see in the various mythologies and religions: Greek: Venus Egyptian Isis, Babylonian: Ishtar, Romana: Aphrodite; Cannanita: Astarte, South America: Pacha Mama. The cult of Isis, which was brought to Europe by the Roman Empire, reaching great influence. By syncretism was transformed by the Church of Rome in the worship of the apparitions of Mary, “Queen of Heaven”.
[8] Northern Hemisphere: between 20 and December 23. Southern Hemisphere between 20 and June 23.

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