The dispersion of Eden to the World III. By Fabian Massa

Translated from Spanish to English by Google Traductor.
South American Cultures, by Fabian Massa.
As seen on the map [1] which follows:
Some of migration flows from Asia were crossing the American continent from north to south.
Image
The “Time” of America
It is understandable that this process of populating the American continent is completed in many “waves” of immigration, which undoubtedly took a lot of time. We could see in the chapters that the cultures of the Mediterranean islands, mainland Greece, Anatolia, Canaan and Egypt, flourished all (according to archaeological data) around 7000 BC which suggests that the Battle of Babel could have been a bit prior to that date. The first organized American culture oldest found to date, is the de Valdivia on the south coast of Ecuador, dating from 3500 BC Given the enormous distance from Babel to the Americas, it is reasonable difference of 3000 years to cover that distance and to reach the degree of multiplication needed to be covering such a vast territory.
So given things can be said Christopher Columbus left his World, Europe, the Middle Age was ending, to come to America in 1492, but some Native Americans were in the middle Stone Age, as the Cochise Culture [2] in the U.S. Great Plains. Others, however, were at an age equivalent to the Bronze Age in the Middle East, as in the case of the Mexica and Incas. Consider that the same period in Sumer was between the 4500 BC It can be said that Columbus made a trip across the Atlantic Ocean and time, coming to a new world that lived in the past, about 6,000 years back in time.


The most important pre-Columbian cultures in Central and South America, in order of seniority:
  1. 3500-150 to Valdivia Culture. C.: The Valdivia Culture developed in the southern coast of Ecuador, mainly in the Santa Elena Peninsula, although traces found within the country.
  2. Puerto Hormiga Culture 3090-90 a. C.: It unfolded in actualColombia.
  3. Caral Civilization. [3] Peru, 3000 to 1800 years BC
  4. Chavin Civilization. Peru, 1500 years B.C.
  5. Olmecs. State of Veracruz, Mexico, 1200 B.C. until 500 B.C.
  6. Maya Civilization. Central Mexico, 1000 years B.C.
  7. Chibchas. Colombian Andes, from 600 to. C.
August. Incas. Southern Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and N. O. of Argentina, 1200 A.D. (?)
9. Aztec Civilization. Near the present capital of Mexico, 1400 A.D.
In this paper, we will only see some of the cultures exposed.
1. CULTURE VALDIVIA
Valdivia is a pre-Columbian culture that developed between 3500 and 1800. C. In the western coast of Ecuador in the provinces of Manabi, from Puerto Cayo sector to the north of the province of Santa Elena, one of the driest areas of the coast of Ecuador. This culture is contemporary with the Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia. The Valdivia culture is the first American pottery. Its origin is one of the enigmas of Ecuadorian archeology. They had a tribal organization. Regulated their lives through relationships of reciprocity and kinship, which ensured the survival of the group. Probably Valdivia culture was matrilineal organization (matriarchy).
Its economy was mixed, based on agriculture and natural resources directly obtained. The main crops were corn, beans and squash. You may also planted peppers and peanuts, and cotton. They gathered wild fruits like papayas, pineapples, custard apples and avocados, hunted deer, fished and gathered shellfish.
a. They had a funeral organized Worship
The funeral of the deceased took place under the floor of the house, maybe then were abandoned, there is no certainty. Sometimes buried in ceramic vessels. Found individual and collective burials. Domestic dogs also were buried following a funeral pattern similar to their masters. This has a certain relationship with the Houses of the Dead in Ancient Egypt.
b. Fertility Cults
In the archaeological sites found fragmented figurines lot of possibly associated with fertility rites. Recall that the fertility cult is common to all cultures around the world.
2. Puerto Hormiga Culture
Archaeology has revealed that it was a society that began to practice agriculture, although still semi-nomadic, and they got most of their food from hunting, fishing and gathering wild fruits. Also have been found remains of pottery, stone tools and molluscs. His would have been a matriarchal society.

3. The sacred city of Caral [4]
We wanted to stop a little in this culture, because their discovery is very recent (2009) and is 1500 years older than the Chavin civilization, which until 2009 was considered the oldest [5]. The Sacred City of Caral-Supe [6] (Peru), the oldest center of civilization in the Americas, is an archaeological site covering approximately 626 hectares and 5,000 years old, is located on a dry desert terrace overlooking the green valley of the Supe river. The archaeological site is exceptionally well preserved, stands the impressive design and the complexity of its architectural elements and space:
  1. The monumental stone platforms and ground
  2. The sunken circular courts.
  3. The six large pyramidal structures.
The finding of a quipu [7] testifies to the degree of development and complexity of Caral civilization.
MAPA CALAL
The map of the city and some of its components, especially the pyramidal structures and residential complex of the ruling class, show clear evidence of ceremonial functions, signifying a powerful religious ideology.
Wikipedia says: It has raised about Caral which hosted a community of various lineages and directed by the heads or representatives of these lineages (Shady, Dolorier and Casas 2000) in which one of them would be the “main” (curaca? ) and other counterparts. The chiefs of these lineages lead and organized the lives of the inhabitants of the various cities and towns as Rough contemporary Caral, Allpacoto, Miraya, Kotosh and The Galgada among others. They all shared the same tradition and formed a wide and well-organized network of reciprocity and exchange (Shady, Dolorier and Casas 2000). Caral should be the head of all this network. What held them together was religion, which was used as a means of cohesion and coercion (Shady 2004). Religion at that time was the policy of the state to control the population (Shady 2004), goods production and circulation. This is represented in the great religious monuments (pyramids) with its squares, courtyards and sacred fire altars where they conducted various ceremonial calendar festivities, symbol of their cultural identity (Shady 2004). The regular meetings and joint activities such as renovation of the pyramids allowed the recognition of the power and strengthened cultural identity (Shady 2004).
All this is the basis of Andean civilization and are present in Caral as the oldest exponents of the main institutions of pre-Hispanic Peru, such as reciprocity (exchange system and circulation of goods and services), the ceremonial calendar (linked the production, cultivation and fishing) or the construction and renovation of temples, among the most destacadas.http :/ / http://www.arqueologiadelperu.com.ar / caral_a.htm
4. City of the Pyramids Caral [8] of Peru.
In Caral [9] highlight 7 great pyramids surrounded by several other small, totaling 32 mounds in total. Its builders organized this city in two sectors: an upper (north) and a low (south). An ancient dry riverbed divides both parties. In the upper six major pyramids are located surrounding empty space. In the area under Pyramid highlights the Amphitheatre and several smaller buildings aligned with it. The residential area is a group of houses where dwelt the people of Caral. These sets of houses are made up of many interconnected rooms. Its walls are very narrow and are made with clay coated woven reeds (technique called thatch). In some of these rooms found evidence that were used as workshops for craft production (Shady 2004).
ciudad piramides caral

City of Caral
Industry Sectors High Greater Pyramid, Pyramid Retail, Quarry Pyramid, Pyramid Gallery, Huanca Pyramid, Pyramid Antigua.
Sector Under Amphitheater Pyramid, Circular Altar Temple, Temple of the bench.
Residential -
In each of the many pyramids of Caral were conducted different activities each fulfilling a different role in the social and religious order of its inhabitants. The Great Pyramid is located at Sector Alto Caral. Volume consists of a stepped pyramid (pyramid) and a circular plaza attached to the façade. A long staircase rises 9 meters wide, reaching 28 meters high, at the top of the pyramid, joining the previous two elements (circular square pyramid +), major components of this building.
The Civilization of Caral is contemporary Sumerian civilizations in Iraq, the Cycladic and Minoan culture of Crete.
How could they reach so similar degrees of civilization, which is reflected in the construction of temples, sacrifices systems, worship Mother Earth as the case of the cult of Pacha Mama in Inca culture, including payment the “Tribute” to Mother Nature?.
Among the Andean cultures (so far) the cult of Pachamama is linked to the carnival party, which has the same meaning of the Festival of Babylonia Tammuz or Baal in Canaan:
The legend says that the Pachamama and an entourage accompanying composed Pujllay (demon or devil carnival), the Llajtay (God of birds and genius male protector) and Ñusta (Inca Empire maiden who is the kinship with the Virgin of the Tunnel).
The Feast of “La Chaya” has its origin in a tradition of Andean (Aymara, diaguitas and Incas) and starts with the unearthing of Pujllay, a doll symbolizing the festive spirit of the time (the devil’s carnival), and later burning and burial until next year.
What happened in the World in 3000 BCE?
Africa
3000. C.: A King Menes or Narmer, ruler of Lower Egypt, united the two kingdoms and converted to Memphis in the center of the empire.
America
3500-150 a. C.: Valdivia Culture developed in the southern coast of Ecuador, mainly in the Santa Elena Peninsula, although traces found within the country.
At 3090-90. C.: In today’s Colombia unfolded Puerto Hormiga culture.
3000. C. approx.: In Peru develops the city of Caral, the oldest deAmérica, that since 3300 a. C. approx. began as a village, and for three centuries grew into Caral-Supe civilization, which reached a high degree of organization (and disappeared in 2100. C.).
In the Peru-Bolivia area began growing cotton. I planted beans ycalabazas. Ceramics is developed.
Asia
The last Siberian mammoths die out.
First half of the third millennium Akkadian period in Mesopotamia.
At 3200-2000. C.: First civilization of the Cyclades in the Aegean. Pre Minoan and Greek Civilization of the continent.
3000. C.: in the Middle East, several civilizations come into the Bronze Age.
Inca Empire
The Inca Empire [10] or Tawantinsuyu (Quechua Tawantin Suyu, the four regions or divisions’) flourished in the Andean region of the subcontinent between 1400 to 1500 AD due to the height of the Inca civilization, which is believed to have originated around 1200 AD
The Inca Empire arises from the organization of pre-Inca tribes (such as Caral, for example) that Manco Capac was gathering in one nation. It covered about 2 million square kilometers, occupying from Colombia in the north to the north of the province of Mendoza in Argentina and to the Maule River in central Chile.
The legend of Manco Capac and his wife – sister Mama Occlo
The sun god seeing the sorry state of men, created a couple: Manco Capac and Mama Occlo the man, his wife and sister were given a golden staff and ordered them to go around the world to civilize the people. He instructed them to found a tribe, and establish in it, worship the sun god. They decided to separate, marching north Manco Capac and Mama Occlo south of the valley, to call people and submit. The people of the valley soon recognize as supernatural beings. After a long journey, the rod sank into the hill Huanacauri. Manco Capac and Mama Occlo settled there. Manco Capac commanded those who were with him to settle in the upper valley, which was called Hanan Cuzco and Ocllo placed theirs on the lower or Hurin Cuzco. Both helped to improve the place, taught men who lived there to work the land and build canals. A Ocllo women taught sewing, cooking and weaving.
On 1 Inca: Manco Capac.
He founded the Inca Empire, around the year 1200 AD and was its first ruler. As in pre-Greek cultures, Egyptian and other Middle Eastern, origin of the first Inca ruler or goes back to the gods. It was characterized by the dominance of the tribes living scattered in and around Cuzco. Manco Capac unified different peoples and with them settled in the lower part of the city. Thus began the dynasty of the Urin Cuzco. A short time later ordered the construction of the first residence of the Incas, or Temple of the Sun elInticancha His sister and wife was Mama Occlo. Sun worship is ancient in America. Limits of the Inca Empire [11]: in the north came to Paso (Colombia) and south to the Maule River in Chile.
INCAICO-Location_Tawantin_Suyu3
The Inca
These rulers, who attributed a divine origin, they usually associate the titles of Lord Inca and Inca sapa “Inca God” and “unique Inca” respectively. Reagan accompanied by an Imperial Council of eight. The imperial government was theocratic and monarchical type the highest authority was the emperor, counseled by the imperial council. The government of each his (district) was in charge of a tucuyrucuy, acting as Viceroy [12]. They had a complex social organization, having reached a very advanced stage of development in livestock, agriculture, metallurgy (bronze working and iron), textile handicrafts, pottery and jewelry. sciences as mathematics, medicine, astronomy. They had also achieved great development of the arts such as dance, music and painting laa.
Religion
The religion was constantly present in all areas of work Incas. In the legends of formation of the Inca Empire, is seen a marked sexual difference between man and woman. They were polytheistic (believed in many gods), emphasizing the cult of the “Sun God”.
Worldview
According to the Inca mythology, there were three different worlds, which had been created by the god Viracocha Inca:
1. Hanan Pacha: heavenly world was only righteous people could enter it, crossing a bridge made of hair.
Two. Kay Pacha is the name of the underworld, where humans live and spend their lives.
Three. Uku Pacha: It was the underworld or world of the dead, unborn children and all that was below the surface of the land or the sea. The sources, caves or other openings in the earth’s surface were considered lines of communication between the Uku Pacha Pacha and Kay.
The two most important gods
The Incas had a very large pantheon, but this time we will mention only two divinities:
Inti was the sun god and supreme god, which exercised sovereignty present in the divine plan (Hanan Pacha). Likewise was the son of the sun god of the ancient world (Ñaupapacha) and reigned over humans in the world today (Kaypacha). Inti was the most important popular deity of the Inca Empire being worshiped at several shrines. It gave him gifts of gold, silver and livestock as well as calls Virgins of the Sun, at which they are elected from the eight years and were educated and trained until puberty for service in honor of the god. It also made him human offerings in the month of Capac piggy bank, which often consisted death row, as the most important god.
Viracocha was considered the original splendor or The Lord, Master of the World. It was actually the first deity of the ancient Peruvians, both the inhabitants of Caral, Chavin, Huari and Tiahuanaco.
We can see this as the religion transcends time, cultures, geography. Caral culture that emerged in c.3300 BC and worshiped the sun god Viracocha and this culture happened but cults remained in the collective memory of these communities, resurfacing in each subsequent civilization. The same is true today with the ancient religions resurface every so hard, as the case of the New Age, which only evoke the gods and goddesses of ancient Babel, though deformed by syncretism and the passage of the years.
The Inca civilization is of enormous wealth, but goes far beyond the subject of this paper. What if you owe us do, is to give a brief reference to the architecture of its temples, in which the stone used in large blocks without much need for mortar. Stones, were used such that fit one another.
Machu Picchu
Machu Pichu is currently considered most representative building of the Inca Empire, is nestled at the foot of two mountains: the Machu Picchu Picchu and elHuayna 2,300 m high. The two hills are difficult to access. Machu Picchu is a complex, where buildings that can be divided by sectors according to activity were related (agriculture, livestock, religion or science, and cemetery). In the religious sector include the Temple of the Three Windows and Inti intihuatana or watch the sun stone block with astronomical functions located on a truncated pyramid.
MACHU PICHU
Machu Pichu.
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Appendix
Note Peru Trade Journal.
The sacred city of Caral is declared Cultural Heritage of Humanity
This was agreed today in Seville World Heritage Committee of Unesco. It is the eleventh Peru site to be inscribed on the World Heritage List.
June 28, 2009
Sevilla (Spain). (EFE). – The Sacred City of Caral-Supe (Peru), the oldest center of civilization in the Americas, has been declared a World Heritage Site as a cultural heritage of “outstanding universal value” agreed today the World Heritage Committee of Unesco, which celebrates its 33rd session in Seville.
Unesco sources indicated to EFE that is the eleventh Peru site to be inscribed on the World Heritage List.
The Sacred City of Caral-Supe, an archaeological site covering approximately 626 hectares and 5,000 years old, is located on a dry desert terrace overlooking the green valley of the Supe river.
Its origins date back to the Late Archaic Period of the Central Andes about 5,000 years ago, which is the oldest city of this type and the center of ancient civilization in the Americas.
This archaeological site of Peru, noted for being exceptionally well preserved, stands the impressive design and the complexity of its architectural and spatial elements, especially its monumental stone platforms and ground and sunken circular courts, UNESCO said.
Caral-Supe is one of eighteen regional urban settlements and architecture, monumental complex at once, including six large pyramidal structures, and its remarkable state of preservation is due both to early drop and its late discovery.
The finding of a quipu (branch of string with several knots and colors, knotted to other similar branches and used to record and transmit stories, news and accounts) testifies to the level of development and complexity of Caral civilization.
The map of the city and some of its components, especially the pyramidal structures and residential complex of the ruling class, show clear evidence of ceremonial functions, signifying a powerful religious ideology.
Prior to that appointment, the director of the Unit for Latin America and the Caribbean of the World Heritage Centre of UNESCO, the Spanish Nuria Sanz, highlighted EFE that the Sacred City of Caral-Supe is “an exceptional site and one of the most monumental and most ancient in the history of American settlement. “
Peru already had ten other sites on the World Heritage List of UNESCO: Cultural six, two natives and two mixed (cultural and natural).
The first included were the City of Cusco (in 1983), the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (1983), Huascaran National Park (1985), the archaeological site of Chavin (1985) and Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (1986) , which remains in the Danger List and whose conservation status has been assessed in Seville.
In this catalog of UNESCO also include Manu National Park (1987), the historical center of Lima (1988 and expanded in 1991), the Abiseo River National Park (1990 and expanded in 1992), the Nazca Lines and Geoglyphs and Pampas de Jumana (1994), the historical center of Arequipa (2000) and, from today, also Caral-Supe.

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 Bibliography
Flyways and haplogroups.
Cochise Culture
The Stone Age in America
Inca Empire
Caral
Shady Solis, Ruth Martha (1997). The Sacred City of Caral-Supe in the dawn of civilization in Peru. Lima: San Marcos, Editorial.http Fund :/ / sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe / Bibvirtual / Books / Archaeology / ciudad_sagrada / caratula.htm. Retrieved on 03-03-2007.
Moseley, Michael E., Gordon R. Willey (1973). “Rough, Peru: A Reexamination of the Site and Its Implications.” American Antiquity 38 (4): p. 452-468.
Chromosomal
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad% C3% A1n_cromosomal-Y
Puerto ANT
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[1] and Migratory Routes
[4] See Appendix
Shady Solis, Ruth Martha (1997). The Sacred City of Caral-Supe in the dawn of civilization in Peru. Lima: San Marcos, Editorial.http Fund :/ / sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe / Bibvirtual / Books / Archaeology / ciudad_sagrada / caratula.htm. Retrieved on 03-03-2007.
Moseley, Michael E., Gordon R. Willey (1973). “Rough, Peru: A Reexamination of the Site and Its Implications.” American Antiquity 38 (4): p. 452-468.
[7] The quipu (Quechua khipu, ‘knot’) was a mnemonic system using wool or cotton ropes and knots of one or more colors developed by the civilizacionesandinas. It was used as an accounting system.
[9] Plane Caral, their sectors and pyramids. Photos, text and drawings italic: Lizardo Tavera http://www.arqueologiadelperu.com.ar/caral_a.htm
[12] National Academy of History of Peru: Perú:http://www.congreso.gob.pe/participa/documentos/boletin23062004.pdf

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