The Sons of God and Angels. Part II. By Fabian Massa.

Translated from Spanish into English by Google Translate.

From the book “From Eden to the Nations” Adrian Pablos and Fabian Massa.

A. Extra-biblical sources

Extra-biblical Jewish sources dealing with this subject such as the three books of Enoch and the Book of Jubilees (Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha both [1], discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls [2]), the Mishna [3] (the oral tradition of the Jews [4] which together with the Gemara would follow later in the Talmud [5] Jerusalem [6] and the Babylonian Talmud [7], the rabbinical writings and the works of Josephus [8] among others . to understand a little more, see what it says in the Book of Enoch:

1. The Book of Enoch
a. The Book of Enoch (1 Enoch abbreviated) The only complete versions of this book that are conserved are in Ge’ez language [9] and Coptic [10], liturgical languages ​​[11] of the Coptic Church [ 12], but several parties are known in Greek, Syriac, Armenian, Arabic and Latin, and also in Qumran fragments have been found in Aramaic and one in Hebrew [13]. The tradition attributed its authorship to Enoch (Enoch English) great-grandfather of Noah. Following the “fashion” of Inter era estate, and like other texts of the same era as if contained in the canons of the Hebrew Bibles, Christian and Catholic, the authors of the works attributed drafting a famous Biblical character (pseudoepígrafe). Here Enoch, “the seventh from Adam” and great-grandfather of Noah. At present it is believed that the text was written by several authors Jews between centuries III and Ia. C., but could be much older, existing in the form of “Oral Book” which was very common throughout the region between the third century BC and the early years of the Christian era. In “Enoch 1″, the flood is caused by God to destroy the Nephilim: Perverse product giant Hybrid fatal sexual union between women and “Grigori” (Greek Rangers), spiritual beings (fallen angels) responsible for monitoring and guide humans. You can see that this book reflects the thinking that had many of the Jews of the time the book was current as possible in 1 ° and 2 ° of Peter and Judas, as indicated by the references in his writings. However, in Christian churches this topic is not addressed, although RV study Bibles NIV Study 95 and there are references in footnotes on this page:
RV 95 Genesis 6:2 The sons of God: Some interpreters consider it divine or celestial beings (Job 1.6, 2.1, 38.7, 29.1 Sal, 89.7), others think they are children of the godly line of Seth, or of the ruling families (82.6 Sal reference). The first interpretation takes into account a common belief among the peoples of the region, about a race of giants who have been born from the unnatural union of supernatural beings with women. Although the biblical account contains dark aspects, its intention is to affirm once again the unstoppable expansion of sin in the world and the increasing corruption of mankind. See this chapter’s comments note A 1 P 03.20 m; Jud 6 n.
b. The Second Book of Enoch, like Genesis 6, speaks of a “period of chaos” just before the Flood. Describes a violent and unjust society, where “The Mighty” destroyed villages and destroyed nations in bloody wars. References to such unrest is not limited to religious documents, but are also found in the Sumerian texts parallel to A. T.
The book relates how the Grigori, led by Asa’el [14], taught men the art of metallurgy, to enable them to make weapons and cast idols, thus encouraging idolatry. Women are taught all kinds of magic (spells, incantations and spells) so does the use of roots and plants.
2. The Book of Jubilees [15]
The Book of Jubilees is basically a chronology of events, beginning with the Creation, grouping the different events in periods of fifty years each. It complements the story of the Book of Enoch with additional data:
Chapter 4:
 Enoch. 21 Enoch was with the angels of the Lord six years jubilee. They showed all that is on earth, in heaven and the power of the sun, and he wrote it all. 22 urged the “custodians” (Grigori) who had transgressed the daughters of men, for they had begun to join the daughters of the land, committing abominations, and testified against them all. 23 was raised from among the children of mankind, and send it to the Garden of Eden to the glory and honor. And there is, sentence writing and eternal judgment and all the evil of the children of hombres.24 why did the Lord get the flood water over the whole land of Eden, because it was put there as a signal to give testimony against all the children of men, telling all their shares until the day of judgment [16] ……
Chapter 5
1 When the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were, saw the angels of the Lord, in a year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful in appearance. Taken by women who chose between them, and they bore sons, who were then grew gigantes.2 iniquity upon earth, and all flesh corrupted their behavior from men to animals, beasts, birds and reptiles. All behavior and corrupt rule, began to devour each other, grew wickedness on earth and conscious thoughts of all the sons of men were evil forever ……
3. The children of the gods and women in the Middle East parallel texts.
The fragment Gen.6.1 – 4 has a mythological character, which is common throughout the culture Mesopotamian (Sumerian, Babylonian, Ugaritic) and also in Egyptian and Greek cultures. In the realm of mythology, sex between deities and humans are feasible, for example:
I. In Sumerian mythology, Gilgamesh’s father would have been the king and his mother Lugalbanda Sumerian goddess Ninsun [17]
II. In Greek mythology, Heracles (Hercules to the Romans) whose name means “the glory of Hera [18]” according to legend was the son of Zeus and Queen Almena.
III. Aeneas, hero of the Trojan War was the son of King Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite.
According Voth, in fragment 4 Gen.6.1 literary structure is not smooth, which could indicate that it was part of a much larger story and known in antiquity [19]. If so, the author of Genesis was able to connect the text in the story, because it gives one of the reasons why the evil increased so much that God decides to end all Creation through the Flood.
But while this piece of Genesis is set in a mythological framework, possibly influenced by neighboring cultures, there are a number of factors that differentiate the biblical myths:
The story of Genesis 6.1 – 4 is very short: The economy of words reflect a remission of importance to. In the mythological stories is given much importance and usually prolonged.
The biblical story presents one God Almighty as a judge and absolute sovereign. In mythology, the chief god of gods has a side cut and sometimes even a third line of “divine servers”, which discusses the decisions.
In the biblical fruit of unions (the nephilim or Nephilim) despite having special conditions, they remain under the government of God and in fact could not escape the judgment (are fatal). But in the mythologies, sometimes the demigods they deceive the chief god and some come to immortality (Utnapishtim, the “Babylonian Noah, achieves immortality).
Esteban Voth conclude is that the author of Genesis is the story of Gen. demythologized 6.1 – 4 [20].

Escultura 1: The sculpture of The Fallen Angel at Plaza del Ángel Caído, in the Retiro Park in Madrid (Spain). Created in 1877.

[1] These books whose author attributes the book to a previous character (sometimes defunct) prestigious.
[2] In 1947 several ancient documents found at Qumran, in a cave on the northwest side of the Dead Sea. This collection of documents, which has become known as the Dead Sea Scrolls, consists of scrolls and fragments of skin and ancient papyrus that had been rolled up and stored in pots buried for centuries. From 1949 to 1956, they found hundreds of manuscripts Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek fragments few caves in the surrounding area. Scholars believe that these manuscripts dating from 200 BC and before the middle of the first century A.D. Some manuscripts were of Jewish apocryphal texts and writings pseudepigraphal. The most notable group of documents is the collection of books of the Old Testament (except the book of Esther). The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise one of the greatest archaeological discoveries of all time. The Jews and Christians often point to these rolls as evidence of the integrity of the text of the Old Testament. Before 1947, the oldest manuscripts of the Old Testament dating from 1000 AD (Century X) With the discovery of the Scrolls, Bible scholars have been able to compare the text of the present time with the text of more than 2,000 years ago. What I have discovered is that copies of the books of the Old Testament, separated in time by more than a millennium, are strikingly similar. In fact, the Old Testament has been faithfully handed down through the centuries. As Rene Paché (1971), The Inspiration and Authority of Scripture (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans) concluded: “Since you can show that the text of the Old Testament was accurately transmitted for the last 2,000 years, it can be reasonably assumed that has been transmitted well from the beginning. ” Comment by Eric Lyons,
[3] The Mishnah (Hebrew for “study, recurrence”) is a body of Jewish law compiled exegetical, which includes the Jewish oral tradition until its codification of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hands towards the end of the second century. The body of law called Mishnah, is the basis of Jewish oral law or rabbinic, which together with the written Torah or law, make halacha. In turn, the Mishnah was expanded and annotated for three centuries by the wise men of Babylon, the Gemara, in both the original and its exegesis Mishna or Gemara, jointly received the name Talmud.
[4] The Talmud Judaism considers the oral tradition, while the Torah (the Pentateuch) is considered written tradition. The Talmud extends, explains and supplements the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), but can not, by definition, contradict the Torah. The paradigm of halakha (“Jewish law” in Hebrew) subordinates the authority of the Talmud to the Torah.
[5] The Mishnah and Gemara together form the Talmud. The text is based Mishnah and Gemara is the commentary and analysis is completed. It comes from ‘complete’ (in Hebrew) or ‘study’ (in Aramaic). The rabbis of the Mishnah are known as Tannaim (singular tanna) and the rabbis of the Gemara are called amoraim (singular amora). Since there are two sets of comments, there are actually two versions of the Talmud: the Talmud Hierushalmi (Hebrew, Jerusalem Talmud) and the Talmud Babli which would correspond to the Gemara of Eretz Israel and Babylon. Both share the same Mishnah. The Gemara is mostly written in Aramaic, the Aramaic Gemara western Jerusalem and Babylonian in Eastern, but both contain fragments in Hebrew, changing even in the middle of a story. Instead the entire Mishnah language is Hebrew.
[6] The Jerusalem Talmud is a collection of Rabbinic notes of the second century, compiled in Israel in century IV or V.
[7] The Babylonian Talmud in its Aramaic translation, Gemara, “teaching”, was written or compiled to collect all the different ideas and “logical” developed over the years of the post-Mishnah. Rabina and Rav Ashi (Rav Ashi “Rabbi Ashi” (352-427) was a famous Jewish religious scholar, a Babylonian, which restored the Academy of Sura and was the first editor of the Babylonian Talmud). ACCORDING to a tradition preserved in the academies, Rav Ashi was born in the same year That, the great teacher of Mahuza, died, and I was the first teacher of any Importance in the after Fanny’s death. This marriage gathered all comments, teachings and discussions that had been developed in different Talmudic schools of Babylon under the name “Babylonian Talmud” or Gemara. Having two Talmud, or two streams of different comments on the Torah, is indicative of two religious schools. Obviously this means a bid for power, considering that in Israel (and throughout the Holy Land) religion goes hand in hand with politics and economics (Looking at today’s situation in the Middle East countries, including Iran, this is obvious).
[8] Josephus (n. 37-38 – Rome, 101) was a Jewish historian Pharisee, descended from priestly family. A man of action, statesman and diplomat, was one of the leaders of the revolt of the Jews against the Romans. Taken prisoner and taken to Rome, became imperial family favorite Flavia. In Rome wrote in Greek, his best known works: The War of the Jews, Jewish Antiquities and Against Apion. He was regarded as a traitor to the Jewish cause and hated by the Jews. His work has been preserved thanks to the Romans and the Christians.
[9] The Ge’ez is an extinct language belonging to the southern group of Semitic languages. Spoken in antiquity in the Kingdom of Aksum, in northern Ethiopia today. The Bible was translated into this language in the fourth century, and for many centuries after ceasing to be a living language used in everyday communication, remained the official language of the Imperial Court of Ethiopia. The Ge’ez remains the liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, being studied in all monasteries and seminaries of this Christian denomination, the largest in Ethiopia and Eritrea, just as Latin is learned and used by the Catholic clergy .
[10] The word Copt refers now to the Egyptians who profess the Christian religions. The Copts are an important religious etnogrupo has ancient origins: His ancestors embraced Christianity in the first century
[11] A liturgical or sacred language is a language that is used in rituals or liturgies of many religious communities, often for prestige or for conservation of native traditions. Most of them are learned only after infancy, and can be considered dead languages.
[12] The Coptic Church was founded in Egypt in the first century No relation to the Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
[13] With registration 4Q317
[14] Asa’el: God did or Strengthened by God. According to the Book of Enoch, Azazel ASA or is particularly significant among the Grigori (Watchers, or guardian angels who rebelled in Genesis 6) because it was he who taught men how to build weapons of war, and also taught the women how to make and use cosmetics. In Leviticus 16:8-10 Azazel is the name of a spiritual entity. Its origin is Hebrew and means “the emissary goat” or “scapegoat” and not mentioned again in any part of the canonical Hebrew Bible. It originates from two Hebrew root words, aze, meaning goat, and Azel, meaning the output. Another possible origin of the name is that it is a derivative of the Hebrew words-az, meaning rough, steep, and-the-powerful or bright (it should be noted that this suffix EL – derived from the Canaanite name Illu, Canaanite supreme deity, The course taken by generic equivalent god applies to almost all the angels-Gabri – The; Mic – The; Dani – The, Rafa – The etc. – and much of the fallen angels). Azazel could also be a reference to the mountain from where despeñaban goats for sacrifice (Leviticus 16).
[15] Book is canonical in all Christian and Jewish denominations.
[16] This would be one of the two witnesses who prophesy for 1,260 days in Revelation 11.3 and 4 (the two olive trees: One would be Enoch and Elijah another, who also was caught up in life and like Enoch did not die)
[17] In Sumerian mythology, was the goddess Ninsun cows.
[18] Hera, chief goddess of the pantheon of Olympian gods (to reside on Mount Olympus, Greece) wife of Zeus. Are syncretized by the Romans as Juno and Jupiter, respectively.
[19] HISPANOAMERICANO Bible Commentary, page 157.
[20] HISPANOAMERICANO Bible Commentary, page 158.
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