Egyptian Mythology. By Fabian Massa

Translated from Spanish to English with Google Translator.

A brief study of Egyptian mythology, Adrian Pablos & Fabian Massa.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization that originated along the middle and lower channel Nile Throughout history we can clearly distinguish three very different periods:
1. Old Kingdom
Two. Middle Kingdom
Three. New Kingdom.
For the present work we will only consider (and very timely and synthetic) some aspects of the Old Kingdom.
According to Egyptologists Egypt began to fill to the 7000 [1] BC About 6000. C., and had appeared in the Nile Valley organized agriculture and small settlements.
At the same time, in the southwest were engaged in farming and living in small towns. Between 5500 and 3100. C., during the Predynastic more small settlements flourished along the Nile
During the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians deified those natural phenomena that puzzled them, and instilled fear, of those who did not know the reason for its action; these divinities associated with the characteristics of certain animals, and represented in human form while retaining features zoomorphic . Here’s an example:
Horus, the god – hawk, “the high” sky god.

Like the Babylonians and Canaanites, Egyptians attributed loe human concepts, such as the creation of a family, so that they formed triads composed of a god, his wife and son.
Horus, like the rest of the Egyptian pantheon was full of human passions so was “sympathetic” to the passions of his followers. Worshiped in temples giving offerings for favors requested or received. This type of Triad is a constant in all cultures through the ages. Each city and its hinterland were under the “protection” of a triad. When one of these city-states was imposed on another, the gods came to have a higher status, since the victors attributed the victory to the assistance of their gods.
Egyptian worldview.
The Worldview of the Egyptians is based on the landscape of his own country, a language of fertile land by a river and surrounded by a desert [2]. To them was divided into three regions:
Heaven, Nun, abode of the gods, presided by the goddess Nut – the feminine principle, “La grande who gave birth to the gods”, ie the equivalent of the mother goddess of Babylon, was depicted as a woman with the body arched covering the entire Earth.
The earth, the abode of men, the House of Geb, the creator god (male principle), depicted as a man lying under Nut.
The underworld, or Duat, the realm of the dead, which ruled Horus, Osiris and later, space travel in his solar boat Ra overnight, and where transiting the spirits of the dead dodging the dangers of the Hereafter. “The Underworld”, where the trial was held of Osiris, and where the spirit of the deceased would wander, dodging evil beings and other hazards, as related in the Book of the Dead [3], and go through a series of “doors” in different stages of the journey, described in the Book of the Gates [4]. Let’s try this a little later in this chapter, by having an interesting parallel between the concept of Judgment after Death with Bible Judgment.
It is the “Primordial Ocean” in Egyptian mythology, common element in all cosmogonies of ancient Egypt and the head of the flooding of the Nile, a key factor of its economy.
As we can see, is repeating the same case previously studied worldviews: 1 removed the Lord from the midst of Creation, 2nd Each element (Heaven, Earth, Sea Primal, etc) is a god. Nun In this case, is the Ancient Sea that covered the whole earth, as Genesis tells the Word 1.2. We can see how the world views of these people are based the story of Creation in Genesis and change it, though all have common elements (as they share their Babylonian origin) in their mythologies.
The Egyptian worldview is very interesting: “In the beginning (starting with the same words that Genesis!), Before the creation, just Nun (but” there “), is an inert ocean, boundless, surrounded by absolute darkness, which is the night, for he had not yet created this. The Egyptian priests, to describe this state, listed what did not exist.
This is the same concept of “not yet established” until God begins to call things that are not to be, as in the case of Genesis 1.3 Let there be light, and the light came into being.
Nun of life arises spontaneously as demiurge [5] who thinks only [6]. Then the demiurge starts talking, and dissociates the Nun that becomes the “Primordial Ocean”. Yet exist and therefore does not see what happens. Then the Demiurge comments [7] to Nun what happens, and the story of the Demiurge causing awakening response and the Nun, is the origin of the word, and dialogue. “
In the Biblical account of creation in Genesis 1, no need for a “demiurge” because God speaks without intermediaries. Similarly, “The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep and the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters” (Gen. 1.2). Other versions translate the land was idle, ie things that had no meaning, until the Lord begins to sort (ie giving verbal commands that cause the creation of all things). We can see that there are parallels between the two texts, where each element of the story corresponds to another element of the biblical text.
Note 95 on Genesis 1.2 RV Darkness … on the face of the deep: Another possible translation: It was a deep sea covered with darkness. According to a widespread idea among the peoples of the ancient East, before creation there was only a chaos of darkness that covered everything as threatening waters (Ps 104.6-9). Therefore, one of the first actions of the Creator was to separate the waters above and below, citing boundary expansion or firmament (v. 7). According to v. 5-9, of the primeval chaos seas were formed, whether they are on the surface of the land and those who are below it. See Sal 18.15 n.; Cf. also Ps 24.2.
Nut in Egyptian mythology, represent “Waters Above” biblical (outer space) Heaven, represented by the goddess Nut or Nuit, “La Grande who gave birth to the gods”, is the goddess of heaven (Celestial Vault – Outer Space and “Heaven – Earth’s Atmosphere”), creator of the universe and the stars.
“Wife of her brother Geb, and mother of the gods Osiris, Isis, Seth, Nephthys and Harmakis, born in the days epagómenos [8]. In Heliopolis was the mother of Ra and was identified with a cow (Mehet-Urt). Nut gave birth to the sun each day traveling on his body that came to his mouth, disappearing inside (or the Duat), reborn the next day. ” Wikipedia [9]
Left: Geb
We can see how the incest was a common practice among the gods of Egypt. This then would move the whole society.
Nut, naked, her body arched like a sky, on her husband Geb (Earth). The father of Nut, Shu (atmospheric air), try separarlos.http :/ / / wiki / Nut
NUT: On this Egyptian goddess of Egyptian mythology dictionary (made by Elisa Castel [10], available on the Internet) provides the following information:
ICONOGRAPHY: Female arched over the land that is held in their hands. These are based on the Eastern horizon and your feet on the West (other texts placed its members in the four corners). His body is covered with stars and skin (or dress) is blue.
Egyptian Mythology remained not a “format” defined throughout Egyptian history. The country was divided two kingdoms and each kingdom into provinces. Each province had the equivalent of a current Capital City.
During each historical period, the center of economic, political and military moved from one region to another in Egypt. This was reflected in Religion: The gods of the region turn to power, were the largest in the pantheon of gods. [11]
Osiris: Father. It is the Egyptian god of resurrection, symbol of fertility and regeneration of the Nile is the god of vegetation and agriculture; also chairs the trial court of the deceased
Isis: Mother. Its Egyptian name was Ast, meaning throne hieroglyph represented by carrying on his head. It was called “Grand Magus”, “Great Mother Goddess”, “Queen of the Gods”, “fertilizing Force of Nature”, “Goddess of motherhood and birth” (same as Ishtar and Astarte).
Horus, god – Hawk: Son. “The high”, was considered the initiator of the Egyptian civilization.
ISIS [13]
ICONOGRAPHY: It looks like a woman wearing the symbol of his name on head (the throne). From the New Kingdom can also carry two liriformes horns and solar disk between them.
According to the mythology of the city of Heliopolis [14], Geb (the land of Egypt) and his wife and sister Nut (the sky), give life to two men, Osiris and Seth, and two women, Isis and Nephthys.
Osiris married Isis, Seth and Nephthys. According to tradition, the two brothers had constant heavy fighting. Symbolically Osiris represents everything good and everything bad Seth.
Thanks to a trick, Seth manages to kill Osiris, the dismembered and their remains hidden to prevent find his body (to avoid having “Life after Death), scattering them throughout Egypt.
Isis, wife – sister of Osiris, rescues every piece of her husband in every corner of Egypt. (An emulation of Ishtar and Anath trips had to do to rescue their husbands – brothers of the underworld).
Finally, Isis is able to recover all the remains of her late husband Osiris, but there was one part that could never find: the penis. Isis used her magic powers to resurrect her husband Osiris, which henceforth would be responsible for ruling in the land of the dead, the Duat.
Also, using his magic (Again a miraculous pregnancy, when you consider that the penis of Osiris was never found), Isis could conceive a child of the risen Osiris: Horus.
Thus completes the trilogy, as already seen in the Babylonian and Canaanite mythology.
Horus is raised by a tutor who forms in all wisdom. When it grows it becomes a powerful warrior, fight against and defeat Seth, avenging the death of his father.
You could say this story is almost the same Babylonian myth of Ishtar descending to the Underworld to rescue his son – lover Tammuz (with slight differences), as each civilization gives a “Local Color”.
This Egyptian goddess, extended the borders of his country and was worshiped throughout the Roman Empire, reaching built temples for their worship in Britain. The name Isabela – Elizabeth derives directly from the Roman cult of Isis Bella, like Isidore Roman name, meaning gift or gift of Isis.
Isis nursing infant Horus (Harpocrates). Louvre Museum.
He held the following titles:
“Grand Magus”
“Great Mother Goddess”
“Queen of the Gods”
“Fertilizing force of nature”
“Goddess of motherhood and birth.”
Isis Lactans. Pio-Clementino Museum – Vatican Museum.
The cult of Isis had a great influence on Roman Christianity, Coptic Orthodox, which the cult of Isis syncretized with the Virgin Mary. According to Dr. W. Ward Gasque (Christian scholar, President of the Pacific Association of Theological Studies, Seattle WA-known for his comments to the Book “The Da Vinci Code”) “the image of child Horus and Isis has influenced the Christian iconography of the Virgin and Child “. Historian Will Durant [15] wrote that the first Catholics sometimes pay their respects, to the statues of Isis suckling the infant Horus, sincretizándolo then the cult of Mary, mother of Jesus. The figure of the Virgin Mary, venerated in Catholicism and the Orthodox Church, for her role as merciful mother has undeniable parallels with the figure of Isis.
For the Egyptians, life continued after death. At the moment of death, the spirit of the deceased was led by Anubis to the place of judgment, in the “hall of the two truths” and the heart of the dead, which was the symbol of morality of the deceased, was weighed in a balance.
In a saucer of it stood the “Heart” and on the other pan the feather of Maat (goddess daughter of the god Ra, representing justice and truth). Under the balance, awaiting the results Ammyt (A creature with crocodile head, front and rear lion hippo.)
If the heart and pen were weighed the same the result was favorable and the deceased was considered “Just Voice”. Then was brought before Osiris in Aaru (the “Paradise” where there was Osiris).
If the result was bad, the deceased was devoured by Ammyt, losing in this way the entrance into eternal life.
In ancient Egypt, the pharaohs were immortal just like the gods. Later this belief spread to the rest of the Egyptians. People are “prepared” for the afterlife, according to their income level.
The embalming and mummification.
The Egyptians bought the priests of “The Words Fair,” a magical formulas written “help” to the person, once deceased, in the judgment of Osiris. The richer the person, the more and better magic formulas to ensure a place of privilege in the “Other World”.
Grave: During the Old Kingdom, the pharaohs had access only to immortality. The tombs were a set of several underground chambers on which construction was phased mud brick (adobe) [16] that mimicked the house of the deceased. In the main chamber and the mummy was placed in the auxiliary put all kinds of food, clothing, utensils, and things that the deceased might need in your next life. These tombs are known Mastabas name (you Arabic). The mastabas were to be placed outside the scope of the flooding of the Nile, and had to be in the west of the Nile in the desert, where the sun was setting at sunset, which was where the dead began their journey to the Hereafter because, according to their beliefs, the entrance to the underworld, or Duat, was located to the west, which are called “Western” to the spirits of the dead.
Graphic: Mastaba double moat. This building had two levels: the basement, with the burial chamber which was accessed through long vertical wells, which blinded after depositing the mummy and the upper level, which was the chapel, which imitated the house deceased, where relatives could go to deposit offerings, with one or more “false doors” decorated with reliefs, located in the eastern part, which served to indicate the spirit of the deceased twice (called ba), the place where he was leaving or entering the building.
Just after the year 2600 BCE began to build stone pyramids [17].
In Babylon, the constructions of the temples were to establish a point of contact between “Heaven” and Earth “. In Egypt, this contact between the earthly (natural) and celestial (or “divine) was established in worship to the gods. The Mastabas not only were tombs, were temples to worship the ancestors as gods [18]: We carrying offerings, flowers honored them by visiting them in their grave (“House”). Wealthy Egyptians built their mastabas (the richer the family, the more important the building), in the cemeteries of today, we can see that wealthy families have a “dome”, which is basically a “house” where lie the dead, one place where the family can visit and bring offerings of flowers. That is, the cult of the dead of today is not very different from that practiced Ancient Egypt, we can see any Sunday in local cemeteries where relatives of the deceased will “visit” their dead and they “pray” and in their belief that the dead are “closer” divine [19] “. We can see at a glance that this is the same world view of the subject that had the inhabitants of ancient Egypt from 3500 BC. C.
[1] Some scholars give an earlier date.
[2] This situation of a river at the heart of development is common to Egyptian civilization, Hindustani and Babylonian.
[3] The Book of the Dead, is a funerary text consists of a set of magic spells or incantations, rau, who helped the deceased, during his stay in the Duat, to overcome the judgment of Osiris.
[4] The Book of Doors is a sacred text that traces the journey of the spirit of the deceased in the other world, and is linked to the progress of the Sun, although set during the night hours in the Duat. The spirit requires passing a series of “gates” at different stages of the journey. Each gate is associated with a different goddess, and requires that the deceased recognize the specific nature of each deity. The text implies that some people will go unscathed, while others suffer torment in a lake of fire.
[5] Demiurge (Greek) entity behind the creation
[6] As an entity that thinks – talks: ie loose the creative word, note that is the same concept referenced John 1:1: In the beginning was the Logos, and the Logos was with God and the Logos was God. All things were made by him and no, it came into being.
[7] The “Demiurge” Here loose the creative word.
[8] The Egyptian calendar had 360 days, which is adicionaban five days, in which they celebrated the birth of 5 gods: Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis and Nephthys.
[11] See Appendix
[12] The Ennead (group of 9) of Heliopolis “The souls of Thoth”: Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Nut, Geb, Isis, Osiris, Nephthys and Seth, whose main god Atum.
[14] Heliopolis, see Appendix cap. 9
[15] William James Durant (5/11/1885 – 07/11/1981) was a philosopher, writer and historian American. Best known for his book The Story of Civilization (History of Civilization) narrated jointly with his wife.
[16] These adobe bricks withstood the test of time, so there are very few graves have been found.
[17] See Appendix
[18] The family gods, worship present in most civilizations, teraphim.
[19] “The Divine”, obviously having no part in the Christian worldview.


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