Mythology Canaanite. By Fabian Massa.

Translated from Spanish to English with Google Translator.

Templo de Baal en Shamin Palmyra,Siria. 
A brief study of the mythology of Canaan, by Adrian Pablos & Fabian Massa
After the confusion of Babel (Gen. 11.6 – 7) the text implies that there was a struggle to stay in place. After the battle of Babel, the descendants of each of the sons of Noah took a different direction. It is important to understand that although these data dumps are static on paper, the reality was quite dynamic: Everything was given at a time and the different currents overlapped over time, changing the poles of power from one nation to another.
The Semites remained in Mesopotamia, extending Joktan (Arabic) to the Arabian peninsula, Elam (from Iran), Media and Assyria (northern Iraq region, comprised of the Tigris and Euphrates).
The Japhethites took the islands of the Mediterranean, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Eastern Europe and Russia.
The Hamitic took the territories of present day Palestine, Israel, Syria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan and Libya. There were strong in Lud (Turkey), and the islands of Crete and Cyprus. These also populated India until they were displaced by the invasions Arias (Indo) to the 1500 ACC
After this brief introduction to the dispersion of the three sons of Noah, we focus on Canaan.

A brief word about Canaan [1]
Before you jump right into the topic of mythology Canaanite peoples, it is necessary to give a description, in order to locate on the issue. As we saw in the previous chapter, after the battle of Babel, men were grouped according to their new languages ​​in different clans. The cots were spread over a wide area which includes parts of:
Middle East: The current Palestine, Israel, Syria and western Arabia.
Africa: In the territories of the present countries: Libya, Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan and northern Kenya.
Asia: Indus Valley (Indus River Valley in India and Pakistan)
The land of Canaan is located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, covering part of the Syro-Phoenician strip known as the Fertile Crescent. [2] (Which is also known by the name of Levant [3])
The name of this territory by the name of Canaan, dating from about 3000 BC The Romans, during his long rule, they changed the name to Palestine [4] as immediate retaliation against the Hebrews after quashing a rebellion of 132-135 AD
The importance of the Canaanites to Western culture is mainly the invention of our current alphabet and writing system, to develop the letters from the Egyptian hieroglyphs, combining a letter to initial sound of each of the objects represented by signs . The sign next to “home” became the letter Beth, or B, by association with the first sound of that sign (Beth means house in Canaanite, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic). The writing system invented by the Canaanites is the basis of all other Semitic alphabets, and through them, the alphabet and writing Greek, Latin, Russian, Gothic, Indian and Mongolian.

Cananea Mythology
The aim of this paper is not to make a thorough study of the mythology of the first civilizations postdiluvian, but only show how their worldview [5] and the set of myths that are constituted a distorted version of the oral history of Creation [6 ].
In Canaanite mythology Ël [7] or IL was the main deity, being the supreme god and father of the human race and of all creatures. It was called “the father of all the gods” and “God of Gods” (in the archaeological always found in front of the other deities). It would be the equivalent of the Sumerian god Anu [8], ie “God of Heaven” and therefore male creative principle, it is because of this that in the vicinity of the temples were phallic symbols [9] that it represented.
Another name given to Ël was Dagon [10], can be translated dagan ‘grain’, ‘wheat’ or ‘seed’.
The “Court” of Ël was satisfied by lesser gods with various functions and activities, the equivalent of the Annunaki of Babylon, and a reminder of losGrigori Prediluvianos of Genesis 6.
This type of “minor gods Courts presided over by a supreme god” can be seen in the mythologies that originate directly from the dispersion: the Canaanite, Egyptian, Greek and India.

Influence on the god of the Hebrews Ël [11]
In the early chapters of Genesis, the Lord is named as’ Elohim about this narrows the Bible Textual [12]: The word Elohim is a plural common noun meaning powerful intensive. The common noun names people, animals, things, or ideas in general. It is written in lower case, as opposed to proper noun official name and is capitalized. The Hebrew Bible Stuttgartensia [13] transliterated Elohim throughout the chapter I of Genesis. The literal translation of ‘Elohim is Gods, which is pretty uncomfortable for a religion whose axis is monotheism. The dictionaries explain that the word is a ‘plural of majesty of God, a superlative: “God of gods”, the most powerful [14].
About the word ‘elohim Bible textual dimension [15]: However’ elohim [16] is also used to refer to pagan gods and idols of the neighboring towns of Israel (Genesis 31.30, Exodus 20.33; Judges 2.3) and also for refer to men, judges, gods and angels, according to the context (Psalm 82).
In Genesis 1.26, the Hebrew Bible in Spanish translates Stuttgartensia:
26 Then said Elohim, Let us make man in our likeness, and exercise [17] dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.
It makes sense the God of gods translation when God speaks of himself in the plural and says “Let us make man in our likeness.” Here we would again figure of a supreme God surrounded by a retinue of spiritual beings of a lower rank (Angels, see Psalm 103.20 and 21).
Keep in mind that the events described in Genesis are literally prehistoric (in the modern sense of the term [18]) Many Christians interpret the Book of Genesis was given to Moses by mystical revelation. This belief is part of the “Christian folklore,” of things that are heard and taken as “article of faith” without analyzing the Scriptures, but keep in mind that the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob recognized YHWH as their God, and He Lord Himself bears witness to this in Exodus 3.6 RVC:
6 And he also said: “I am the God of your father. I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. “
It is also necessary to understand that these patriarchs were those who kept alive the stories of Genesis, passing them from generation to generation until they were collected by Moses long after the 1400 CAC Moreover it is more than possible that Moses knew the Hebrew tradition and worldview, and being educated in Egyptian culture, which obviously included all his religion and science.
The descendants of these three patriarchs lived in Canaan being a people insignificant to the point that when entering Egypt were only seventy people, (Genesis 46.27), while the Amorites and Canaanites were other powerful nations peoples. The influence of the Canaanite peoples was very strong among the Hebrews. Moreover, the cult of the name of YHVH Elohim was limited to service to the patriarch of the family and there was no liturgical organization, which would be developed in the time when God revealed to Moses selo (Book of Leviticus).
A sample of this influence can be seen in the formation of the following names:
Angel                                                           Messenger of Ël (God)
Daniel                                                          Ël (God) is my judge
Miguel                                                         (God) Who as Ël
Ezekiel                                                       Jazqui him he (God) strengthens
Israel                                                          Ël (God) The fighting 
Joel                                                            Ël, Yha (short of YHVH, Yave) is Ël (God)
Nathanael                                                  Natan – Ël, Don of Ël (God)
Ismael                                                        Ël (God) hears
Rafael                                                        Ël is my healer
Elias                                                           Ël-Yha, my God is YHVH.

The figure of the king as a god on earth.
As in Babylon, Canaan King was named “Ël servant.” This described the status of the ancient Canaanite kings as executors of the divine will. This title was seen as a privilege and a burden of responsibility in the government as a representative “of Heaven.” The concept of deified king was perpetuated well into the eighteenth century.
Like any king, he had his female counterpart, Astarte was his wife (plural Ashtaroth) goddess of fertility and sexual love. It is also known by the name of Asherah [19] (Judges 6.25, 1 Kings 18.19).

Triada Canaanite.
At this point we see the union of Ël born Baal and Asherah. This son Baal, usually represented as a young bull (a bull [20]). The name Baal (B’L, owner or Lord) was a general designation happened to be the name of Hadad, the god of rain [21]; become the “master” or “Lord” for excellence in an agricultural society pending lives to achieve precipitation crops. Once again we see as Canaanite mythology Babel copy formats, replacing the triad Nimrod, Semiramis and Tammuz by the triad Ël, Asherah and Baal. This same pattern of “divine family” is repeated in Egyptian mythology, Greek, Roman and around the world to this day.

Influence of the triad Canaanite on the Hebrews
Early Hebrews in Canaan (Abram and his people) lived with the Amorites, getting a bath inevitably their culture and religion. Much later, once established the Israelites in the “Promised Land” were surrounded by people who worshiped the god El-Il-Dagan and his son Baal-Hadad [22]. Discard the cult of “the Baals” to serve the Lord only meant to live in an area of ​​justice, truth, righteousness and compassion, concepts that did not apply between peoples Canaanites (merchants used deception to gain wealth). Israel (the struggle with (against) Ël) should be an example for other villages.
However, material wealth that the Canaanites claimed garner from their worship Ël, the tempted and often participate in the cult of the bull or calf (Baal). This brought tremendous problems to the People of God. The prophets said:
“… All the merchant people [Canaanite] is destroyed, cut are all they that bear silver” (Zephaniah 1:11). And referring to Judgment: “And in that day there will be no” dealers “in the house of the Lord of hosts” (Zechariah 14.21).
The great difficulty of studying these issues lies, among other things, the anachronism [23] since the biblical account tells facts well before its date to its historic collection.

Crying Baal
Baal worship is related to the rainfall cycle. In the land of Canaan there is a time “dry” since no rain from late April through September.
The rainy season begins in October and continue throughout the winter until early April, which grows by lush vegetation. It was believed that the changing seasons and the subsequent effects were produced by the endless cycles conflicts between the gods. The time “dry” (that caused that vegetation withers) was attributed to the triumph of the god Mot (god of death and dryness) on Baal (god of rain and fertility), forcing the latter to withdraw to the depths of the earth and wait for the time to succeed in the next battle against Mot.
Interestingly, this same belief, with other names we will see later when we discuss the mythological worldviews Columbian American peoples [24].
Influence of worship of Baalim in Israel
Once the early Hebrews settled in Canaan, were influenced by all the surrounding pagan cults. We quote as that example in the dry season, the Hebrew women followed the same customs of the Canaanite Baal crying. This tradition which spread over time to other peoples who inhabited the area, including Israel after conquered that territory.
RV 60 Ezekiel 8:14:
He brought me to the entrance of the gate of the LORD’s house, which is north, and behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz.
Consider that the prophet Ezekiel lived around 800 BC, and worship the Baals was still in force with much vigor.

The Winter Solstice festival in honor of Baal.
According to myth, Baal was defeated by the evil Mot (god of drought and destruction) and taken prisoner to the underworld, where reigned Mot. Baal was the power of Mot rescued by his sister – wife the goddess Anat [25], after defeating in battle the evil Mot. This event brought with it the revival of Baal [26] who returned to his throne and restarting a new rainy season and a subsequent new fertility cycle. According to the Baal myth sexually joined with his sister-wife Anat, thereby ensuring fertility for the coming year.
Agrarian myth is a copy of the journey to the underworld of the Babylonian goddess Ishtar to rescue Tammuz. It is, ultimately, the celebration of the winter solstice [27]. Religious rituals to celebrate the beginning of the rainy season and the “Renaissance” of Baal, was celebrated with wild sex orgies where all the people involved regardless of class. These “parties” could be the source of current “Carnival”, where different companies are allowed a number of excesses of conduct [28].

Israel influence
The people of Israel also participated in the “festivals” which greatly displeased the Lord:
Judges 8.33, RV 60: But it happened when Gideon died, the Israelites became a whoring after Baalim, and chosen by God to Baalberith [29].
In this verse, prostitution to be taken literally and not just as a figure of idolatry.
Baal worship Cities
In the development of this worship each location had its own prefix or suffix in the name of Baal. This suffix or prefix used to acquire the geographical name as a tribute to God. For example, the Baal of Peor (Baal-peor), worshiped by the Moabites and Midianites, took its name from Mount Peor. Years later, the names of these local Baals came to join, by metonymy [30], the same geographical names such as Baal Hermon, Baal-Hazor, Baal Zephon and high places of Baal, to the Canaanites in Actually there was only one god Baal. These centers of worship of Baal were repeatedly named in the Bible as “High Places”. In these temples served Baal prostitutes and prostitutes while priests officiated the service. Near the altar outside the sanctuaries had stone columns, sacred poles (representing the goddess Asherah) and incense stands. Both the sacred pillars and sacred poles were sex symbols (Dongs). Once more we find in this issue the sodomites, which originated in Babylon.
Temple of Baal of the city of Palmyra (Syria) near the border with Iraq. It can be seen the folly of sacrifices in the “High Place”, over the hill.
The correspondence between Canaanite deities – Babylonian and their respective cults is:
               Babylonian Canaanite Deities Deities
 Ël or IL ———————————————- Anu
 Ishtar ———————————————— Ashtoreth
Baal ————————————————— Tammuz
Names of people who revere Baal
Bowed to Baal names, such as:
Hannibal Phoenician name meaning “grace of Baal”
 Baale, which belongs to Baal.
 Hasdrubal protected Phoenician Baal means.
 Bael, Baal.
 Baltasar, “Belshazzar”, protected by Baal.
 Beltis (Baaltis) Anat another name. It is the feminine counterpart of Baal.

Two other gods that were worshiped in Canaan who are named in the Bible.
Molech [31]: Canaanite deity not completely identified to which they gave human sacrifices, preferably children who were burned alive.
Extracted from Wikipedia [32]: Moloch is generally depicted as a human figure with a bull ram’s head, sitting on a throne and a crown or other royal badge, as a staff. The Moloch sacrifices were preferred by children. The ritual child sacrifice was common in Middle Eastern peoples, including the Hebrews and Phoenicians. The rite consisted in the sacrifice, for cremation, of a newborn child in perfect condition. In the temples in which they worshiped Moloch was a huge bronze statue of the god. This statue was hollow, and the figure of Moloch had his mouth open and arms extended, hands together, palms up, ready to receive the holocaust. Inside the statue is a fire lit continuously fed during the Holocaust. Sometimes arms were articulated, so that children sacrifice served deposited in the hands of the statue, through chains rose to the mouth, entering the victim’s womb God incandescent [33] .
Plutarch [34] tells in his De Superstitiones:
Before the statue was completed flooded the area with a loud noise of flutes and drums so that the cries and laments not reach the ears of the crowd.
Diodorus [35] wrote:
There was in the city with a bronze image of Cronus with outstretched hands, palms up and each child was placed in them was gone and his mouth fell open into the fire.

Mentions of Moloch in the Bible
Leviticus 18.21 (as Molech, Molech)
Leviticus 20.2, and 5 (as Molech, Molech)
Deuteronomy 12.31 (not mention the name)
Deuteronomy 18.10 (not mention the name)
1 Kings 11.6-7 (as Milcom)
1 Kings 11.33 (as Milcom)
2 Kings 16.3 (not mention the name)
2 Kings 17.17 (not mention the name)
2 Kings 21.6 (not mention the name)
Jeremiah 7.31 (not mention the name)
Jeremiah 19.5 (Baal appears instead)
Ezekiel 16.20 (not mention the name)
Zephaniah 1.5 (as Milcom)
Chemosh [36]: Principal god worshiped by the Moabites (1965 R. 11:7, 33, 2 Kings 23:13; Jer.
48:7, 13), who, therefore, are called “people of Chemosh” (Num.
21:29; Jer. 48:46). The Moabites all victories attributed to the aid of this god and all his anger defeats. Occasionally human sacrifices were offered to him (2 Kings 3:27). From the days of Solomon to those of Josiah was worshiped in Judah (1 Kings 11:7, 2 Kings 23:13). The mention of Chemosh in message Jephthah (Judges 11:24) implies that the Ammonites also worshiped.
There are parallels between the gods Greek Cronus, the Moabite Chemosh and Molech mysterious Canaanite: In their worship, he gave children who died in the flames.
The Fertile Crescent or Fertile Crescent is a historical region that corresponds to part of the territories of ancient Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia and Persia.
Anatolia: Actual Turkey
Media and Elam: Current Iran
Assyria and Mesopotamia: Current Iraq
Representation of the god Fish (Dagon) Phoenician.

Baal (Excerpted from:
Hebrew: Baal [37], “Mr. [love]“, “owner [owner, possessor]“, “husband”.
A term in the Hebrew text of the Bible (our translations do not reflect it) is used to signal the homeowner (Judges 19:22), golf (Job 31:39), ox (Ex. 21:28), wealth (Ecclesiastes 5:13), a woman (Ex. 21:3), a place (Judges 9:2), etc..
Semitic god. Baal was:
a. The name for a local god in the sense of “lord” (as in Baal-gad, Baal-peor, Baal Hermon).
b. The name of a Canaanite god of storm and thunder. They believed that the Baals lived in holy places or houses (like trees, tops of mountains and rocks, springs), and talked about each of these local gods like Baal, “Lord”. The Old Testament often mentions, where Baal appears in the plural form: Baals (Judges 2:11, 3:7, 8:33; etc..). They were considered gods who cared for natural vegetation and the increase of the herds and livestock. Usually, when is singular and article refers to the major national god of the Canaanites. In the Ras Shamra texts * is sometimes applied as a god palabraBaal own specific places and shrines, but more usually the name of the most exalted of all deities. His exaltation to the head of the Canaanite pantheon appears in a rather late age, since the pre-eminence had long before Dagon and had dedicated a temple before built one for Baal. But when he emerged as victor in the struggle for supremacy between the gods, remained there for many centuries. He was the god of storms and therefore it frequently identified with Adad (Hadad). As attributed the stormy winter rains, I was held responsible for the fertility of the country.
Baal worship, universal in Syria and Palestine, had great appeal to the Israelites. Repeatedly relapsed into her since she entered the land of Canaan, until they were taken into captivity. The 1st time aBaal mentioned in the history of Israel is shortly after the death of Moses, when the Israelites encamped in the plains of Moab, near a high place dedicated to God (Num. 22:41, “the high places of Baal “). The gods then worshiped the Israelites (Numbers 25:2) may include Baal. He was worshiped again in times of the judges (Judges 2:13, 6:28-32) and often in times of the kings of Judah and Israel. Almost Yahweh replaced the kingdom of Israel in the days of Ahab, when Jezebel, the Phoenician wife of King stubborn, tried to establish the religion of God as the only legal. It is well known the history of the struggle against this cult Elijah and his confrontation and challenge to the priests of Baal on Mount Carmel (1 Kings 16:31-33, 18:17-40). But this victory was short lived Yahweh. Even the terrible crush of that idolatrous worship by King Jehu ascended the throne (2 Kings 10:18-28) marked only a temporary reform.
Baal worship in the northern kingdom is well documented. Among the many personal names of citizens of that kingdom, several formed with the word Baal Abibaal, “Baal is my father”; Baalzamar, “Baal sings”; Baalazakar, “Baal remember (?)”; BaalmaanT, “Baal is my answer “; Meribaal,” my lord is Baal “(if the name is Aramaic) and Baale. This shows that there were many followers of Baal among the living after the reign of Ahab.
In the kingdom of Judah, Baal worship was introduced by Athaliah, the wicked daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and stimulated especially by Ahaz who made the Baals images (2 Chronicles 28:2). These were removed by their good son Hezekiah, but altars to the god were raised again by Manasseh, the next king (2 Kings 21:3). In turn, the good King Josiah destroyed the vessels that had been used in the pagan worship (23:4, 5). The worship of Baal was one of the main causes of the captivity of Judah (Jer. 19:5).
Baal is often associated with the goddess Ashtaroth (Judges 2:13), and in high places dedicated to Lord often found a grove (Judges 6:30, 1 Kings 16:32, 33), his female counterpart.
Stuttgartensia or BHS Biblia Hebraica
The Hebrew Bible Stuttgartensia or BHS, is an edition of the Masoretic Text [38] of the Hebrew Bible (as preserved in the Leningrad Codex [39]) plus complement masora notes [40] and textual criticism. It is published by the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (German Bible Society) in Stuttgart. It is estimated that by 2015 it will issue additional findings from Qumran. It is a publication of the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (German Bible Society) in Stuttgart, Germany.
Strongs Concordance and Hebrew dictionary
Spanish language dictionary © 2005 Espasa-Calpe
 Stuttgartensia Hebraica.
From Superstitiones, Plutarch.
Does Easter or Passover? Page 1.
Published by the Church of God Eternal, USA Translation: David Sainoz. Available in PDF
Indus Culture C3% ADo_Indo
[1] In the Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary, Canaan # 3667, received the meaning of “merchant”, “dealer”. “Canaanite” [Kna `aniy (ken-ah-an-ee ')] becomes symbol of’ merchant ‘(see Proverbs 31:24 and Job 41:6).
[2] See Appendix
[3] See Appendix
[4] The name derives from Philistea Palestine (Philistia), encompassing the ancient Holy Land and the modern nation of Israel. But it is not the original name of the region. The Romans assigned that name as the second century AD after the Jewish revolt against Rome from 132-135 AD The Roman Emperor Hadrian punished the Jewish survivors and renamed Jerusalem with his name and as the god Jupiter Capitoline-Aelia Capitolinam in an attempt to “Delete” from memory the name of Israel. Some historians say that in this period of time was probably when the Romans gave the name of Judea to Palestine. Others believe the change occurred roughly a century later, after Constantine established the Eastern, or Byzantine part of the Roman Empire.
[5] A worldview is a set of myths through which different cultures and backgrounds explain the facts of creation.
[6] While the story of the biblical cosmology was drafted in the 1400 ACC oral book is lost in the dawn of time.
[7] defines Ël Peshitta as the oldest known reference to the deity, common to all the Semitic peoples. Page 1459, Table names in Aramaic.
[8] Anu was the name of a deity in Mesopotamian mythology and Sumerian mythology, described as the god of the sky.
[9] Of or pertaining to the phallus.
[10] Not to be confused with the Phoenician Dagon or the “Sea Peoples” (dag in Hebrew means fish, we then “fish god”).
[11] Hebrews in the original concept of the word: People on the other side of the Euphrates River.
[12] Page 1289.
[13] The Stuttgartensia Hebrew Bible (BHS) is an edition of the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible, Leningrad Codex, supplemented by masoretic notes and critique of textos.It is published by the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (German Bible Society) in Stuttgart. It is published by the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (German Bible Society) in Stuttgart. See Appendix.
[14] Another example of superlative: the Song of Songs.
[15] Page 1289.
[16] The use of uppercase and lowercase word pair is typical of our language, since in Hebrew is always written in lower case.
[17] Exert, the plural is referring to an unspecified number of people, so here is a common noun man (generic) and not a proper name, according to what we have seen in Chapter I.
[18] Prehistoric, ie pre-historic time (historical time where facts are documented)
[19] More information on Asherah in Appendix.
[20] Calves: The Canaanites worshiped Baal, represented as a calf. The Egyptians worshiped the Apis Bull as a god of fertility. In Exodus 32.5, Aaron made a golden idol shaped like a calf.
[21] This is the Baal, the god of rain, that the Lord humbles by Elijah decreed a drought of more than three years in 1 Kings chapter 18.
[22] Haddad (Ugaritic Haddu) is a god of thunder and rain that makes plants grow or destroyed, in mythology Assyrian and Aramaic. The son of Anu. It is related in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. He is often called simply Ba’al (Lord), but this title also given to other gods.
[23] Anachronism
[24] precolumbian Native American words prior to the arrival of Cristoforo Colombo (Columbus) to America.
[25] Wife-sister of Baal. Anat or Anut, besides being a fertility deity, was a young and impetuous goddess of war that was also related to the Greek Athena and the Egyptian goddess Hathor. []
[26] See Appendix cap. 9 more about Baal.
[27] The winter solstice corresponds to the instant when the Sun’s position in the sky is at the greatest distance celeste.Dependiendo Ecuador negative angular correspondence with the calendar, the winter solstice event takes place between 20 December to December 23 each year in the Northern Hemisphere, and between June 20 and June 23 in the southern hemisphere. The winter solstice can be calculated exactly. Although in theory the winter solstice lasts only a moment, this term is also often used to refer to the 24 hours it takes place. In fact the celebration of “Christmas” corresponds to this pagan festival of the Winter Solstice for the rebirth of Tammuz / Baal / and the like and was “syncretized” by the Church of Rome as a strategy to “convert” pagans.
[28] Some scholars believe that the word refers to the carnival festivities in honor god Baal (Baal Carnival) at a party where anything goes.
[29] Mr. Baalberith covenant.
[30] Figure Metonymy of designating one thing with the name of another with which it has a relationship of cause and effect. Spanish language dictionary © 2005 Espasa-Calpe
[33] De Superstitiones, page 171, of Plutarch.
[34] Greek historian and essayist born in Boeotia (Greece) who lived in the first century
[35] or Diodorus of Sicily, Greek historian of the first century BC
[37] Taken from:
[38] The Masoretes were Jewish scholars who followed the scribes at work making copies of the Scriptures.
[39] The Leningrad Codex is one of the oldest manuscripts of the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible and the earliest complete copy available. It was written on parchment and is dated in the year 1008. The biblical text found in the codex, contains Hebrew letter, Masoretic notes and Niqud vowel marks in ancient Hebrew had only consonants, until in the seventh century school of Aaron ben Moses ben Asher implemented next point placement the consonants to represent vowels.
[40] The term masora means “tradition” means the compilation of notes made on the biblical text by the rabbis in the top and bottom margins.


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