The 10 plagues of Egypt. By Fabian Massa

Translated from Spanish to English with Google Translator.

Satellite view of the Nile

Each of the plagues of Egypt was an attack on the many gods Egyptians [1]. It is obvious that the Lord's purpose is to demonstrate both the Egyptian Pharaoh in the lead as the Israelites, who is Lord of Lords and King of Kings.

The first nine plagues were events that happened naturally, but during the Plagues of Egypt were in a very exaggerated, the tenth plague was instead spiritually.

Frogs, lice and all sorts of flies were always present in the moist banks of the Nile, in fact a malaria endemic area. Probably the cattle plague sores have been caused by anthrax [2], present even today in Egypt and Northwest Africa.

Also, each plague was foot to the next entry in a chain of circumstances that complexity leaves no chance, causality being the Hand of God who was behind these events.

Plague # 1.
Duration: 1 week. (Ex. 7.25)
Ex 7.17
Water turned into blood.

17 Thus saith the LORD, In this you shall know that I am the LORD: behold, I will smite with the rod that I have in my hand the waters which are in the river, and will turn to blood.
18 And the fish that is in the river shall die, and the river shall stink, and the Egyptians shall loathe to drink water from the river.
19 And the Lord said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, over their streams, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of water, that they become blood, and there is blood all over the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood and in stone.

The word Nile (Arabic 'nil) comes from the Greek word Neilos (Νειλος), meaning "river valley". In the ancient Egyptian language, the river was called iteru, meaning "Great River". In Coptic means "The River" (literally "The Grand Canal"), which comes from the same ancient name.

The Nile was born on the Mountains of the Moon in Rwanda [3] and flows into the Mediterranean Sea, which, as an inland sea with no tides strong enough to clean the sediment deposited in the river estuary reason which these sediments were accumulated forming a delta. This point is important because the whole Nile delta is reclaimed land and has a different microclimate continental

The waters are saline (salt limits the life of the bacteria in the water).
The winds blow from north to south, clearing the air of the desert delta. [4]

The Nile River hydrographic regime is characterized by two annual floods that occur in summer regularly so little, at least in its middle and lower. The river begins to rise in June and peaks in September, then declined gradually, reaching its lowest level between February and June.

To the Egyptians, the Nile was considered a spiritual symbol, the source of life, the economy of the whole nation depended on the Nile floods Indeed, recall that Egypt's economy was agricultural preferably, to a much lesser extent livestock with a developed fishing industry. Also the river was used as river road.
Most of the population is settled in the Delta and a narrow fertile strip along the Nile River Valley, the majority of its surface integrates the Sahara desert, inhabited only around oases. Its capital is Cairo.
Until relatively recently, the Nile flooded every summer for three months (July, August and September) and flooded the valley. The flood was very beneficial to residents and riparian vegetation, and covering the banks of silt, black sludge that fertilized. The construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1969 and 1970 has lost this natural rhythm of the river.

Del mes de...
al mes de...
Peret (Cosecha)
Shemu (Sequía)

Hardly ever rains in Egypt, and the Nile has tributaries also on Egyptian territory, so the ancient Egyptians knew that the Nile flood was caused by the melting snows of the mountains of Ethiopia and African summer rainfall. For them, this phenomenon was the work of the god Hapi, who embalsaba Nile waters in a cave south of Egypt.

Bible Commentary of Daily Living:
Egypt was a great nation, but most of the population lived on the banks of the Nile This waterway from nearly five thousand miles was really a river of life for Egyptians. Made life possible in a land that was practically deserted to provide water for drinking, for agriculture, for bathing and fishing. Egyptian society was a belt aligned civilization on the banks of this source of life and rarely deeper into the wilderness round. Without the Nile water, Egypt could not have existed. Imagine the consternation of Pharaoh when Moses turned this sacred river in blood [5]

In some river flood sedimentation brought more than others, which gives a more or less intense in its waters. Too exaggerated and metal clay sediments can deplete the amount of oxygen and even large quantities can be toxic, whether substances are toxic in themselves or that alter the normal river Ph (Degree of acidity / alkalinity) which might be the cause of death of fish [6].
Nelson, in his Study Bible Nelson says: "It is uncertain whether the water really became blood. Waters may just appear so. He also mentions "The Hebrew word translated as" blood "refers to a red color, as in Joel 2:31. (31 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord ..) God may have caused torrential rains flooded and contaminate the sources of the Nile to create this plague ... The red earth and algae would make the Nile Red appeared, becoming unsuitable for drinking and poor in the oxygen content for the survival of fish "(1997). In fact, volcanic activity or meteor could cause a similar contamination of red dye, as seems to be the case in a future event prophesied in

Revelation 8:8
The second angel sounded his trumpet, and something like a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood.

 And the Bible seems to indicate that there was a geological survey at the time of the Exodus (cf. Psalm 114:1-6).

Psalm 114
1 When Israel went out of Egypt, The house of Jacob from a people of strange language,
2 Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his dominion. 3 The sea saw and fled: Jordan was driven back 4 The mountains skipped like rams, the little hills like lambs.
5 What ailed thee, O sea, that you fled? And you, O Jordan, that you turned back?
6 Ye mountains, that ye skipped like rams, and ye little hills, like lambs?
7 For the LORD shakes the earth, at the presence of the God of Jacob,

Does God "shook" the land to the height of the sources of the Nile (in Nyungwe, Rwanda) or somewhere in its 6,700 km long? Did you change the water by blood or only took that color? The Word says that they became blood, which leaves no doubt that in any case, God did it and nobody else can do such thing.
The Israelites lived in Egypt 430 years, which were so idolatrous like them. So God is telling both Egyptians and Israelites:

"Make no mistake, I'm the one in control of all things, the power of their gods is nothing before my presence, you believe that depend on the Nile for his life, but it really depends on my Grace, I Am the One God. "

Egyptian gods humbled in 1st Plague:
God attacks the Nile
Hapi, god of the Nile flood is linked to the god Khnum Primordial Ocean which emerged during the flooding Nile Hapi the Nile ran with a retinue of crocodile gods and frog goddesses.
The goddess Hatmehyt means "The one in front of the fish", placing it in direct relationship with the gods Khnum and Hapi, one of his titles is "The Presiding the Flood"

2nd Plague
Duration: 2 days (Ex. 8.8 to 10)
The Frogs

 Due to the state of water and the riverbanks were a hostile environment for thousands of frogs out of their natural habitat and invaded literally everything. They were obviously intoxicated (On day 2 die and rot quickly) like fish had died and went quickly into a state of putrefaction, polluting the water to the point, that this was not suitable either for consumption or for other use . (Ex. 7.18)

Egyptian gods humiliated in 2nd Plague:

The goddess Heket Heqet or head shaped or frog, was adored in the city of Her-uret and is then Abydos. Originally being associated with Khnum as creator. It symbolized the embryonic stage when grain begins to germinate. It was one of the goddesses who was present every morning at the rising of the sun and thus also became a protectress of births.

Plague 3rd Lice:
Although the Egyptians worshiped any god louse specifically, as far as we know, they worshiped an insect God Kheper who was represented by a beetle. Furthermore, we must recognize how this plague was a slap in the face to the Egyptian gods in general, who were unable to protect his subjects from infestation. In fact, Har-dad-khered (child Horus) was invoked to stay out of dangerous creatures, while Imhotep [7] was hailed as the god of healing medicine. But even as they were being invoked, there was no relief. Even the Pharaoh was considered a god. The divine incarnation of the sky and sun god Horus. However, he suffered from this affliction. He could not be imitated by the magicians this plague of lice infestation. Therefore, they surrendered. But Pharaoh did not.

Egyptian gods humiliated in the 3rd Plague:
Kheper, Har-dad-khered (Horus child); Pharaoh Imhotep, Horus.

4th Plague Flies:
At the river be depopulated of fish and frogs, natural predators are the control element in the amount of insect larvae that live on the banks of the river, flies, flies, gnats, mosquitoes had no impairment in growth and multiply explosively. (Ex. 8:20 / 24)

IV. Flies, Ex 8.20-32.
Ex 8:22, not affected the people of Israel. V. 23 "I will put a division between my people and your people." Recall that North winds wiped Gozen Southern Mediterranean.
 1. In this way the people of Israel could learn not only the great power of God, but that He will bless his people and punish the disobedient.
               Two. This phenomenon was significant since it showed that Jehovah was not "another god of the Egyptians", but that the God of Israel only. Pharaoh could "know" God. He could clearly see that Jehovah was the true and living God.

Egyptian gods humiliated in the 4th Plague:
Kheper, Amun helper of the pious and god of the winds, the Mafdet guardian goddess, the protector god Thirst Pharaoh.

5th Cattle Plague
. Exodus 9:1-7.
       A. V. 3, "Behold, the hand of the LORD will bring a serious plague on your livestock in the field: horses, donkeys, camels, cows and sheep."
               1. It was hit hard because the animals were killed much of his wealth.
               Two. But it was double whammy, because God destroyed objects of their worship: the ox, cow and sheep.
       B. Israel was protected again. V. 4, "the LORD shall sever between the cattle of Israel and Egypt, so that he die not anything all that belongs to the children of Israel."
               1. And it was. V. June.
               Two. V. 7 Pharaoh sent observers, and, behold, the cattle of the children of Israel died not one animal ".
               Three. "But the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, neither would he let the people go."

Egyptian gods humiliated in the 5th Plague
 May. Death of cattle: As in most pagan societies, the horse had a strong relationship with the deities in Egypt. Apis, the bull god, was the living embodiment of the creator god Ptah. The creator gods Atum and Re, united in a single deity, were represented by the black bull of Heliopolis Mnevis. Nut and Neith were represented as the great celestial cow that gave birth to the cosmos and other deities. Mehet-Weret, another goddess associated with the creation, was depicted as a cow. The mother goddesses Hathor and Nekbet were represented in the shape of a cow, Hesat, the goddess of birth, was depicted as a cow. And the adoptive mother of Horus, the cow goddess Seketh-Hor, was even invoked as a protector of cattle - a prayer that nothing now worth in the face of the true power of God. It should be noted also that the Egyptians had some sheep (see 9:3), although apparently not for food or sacrifice (compare 8:26.) And the gods sheep figure prominently in the Egyptian pantheon - Ba, Banebdejedet, Heryshaf primitive, and Nile god Khnum. Even the supreme god Amun was symbolized by a ram with curved horns. The statement "all the cattle of Egypt died" (9:6) must mean that the vast majority of their animals died, as livestock was still alive in verses 19-21 and there were horses in 14:7-9. Still, we can imagine that this was a major outbreak of the economy and military strength of Egypt. Again, God protected the Israelites, as Pharaoh discovered. But still refuses to let God's people go.

6th Plague of Ulcers. Ex 9:8-12.
   A. 9:10, they took ashes of the furnace ... the spread toward the sky, and there was ulcerating rash eruptions occurred.
       B. 9:11 The magicians could not do anything because they themselves were victims of this plague.
       C. Before this plague, and in the plague of lice, there was no warning.
       D. 9:12, "But the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not, as the LORD had said to Moses." 4:21, 7:3, 13.
               1. How did? Was FORCED by God to be rebellious? Did he or did not have free will? Yes, had free will. God hardened his heart only in the sense that it gave him a commandment that he did not like.
               Two. We can say that God hardens the heart of everyone who rebels against his commandments. The same sun softens butter and hardened mud.
               Two. Remember that Pharaoh himself hardened his heart, 7:22, when the sorcerers forged the plague to turn water into blood; see also 8:15 "Pharaoh saw that there was respite (of frogs) hardened his heart and would not listen , as the Lord had said "; 8:32, when God took away the flies," Pharaoh hardened his heart this time, and not let the people go "; 9:34 when they saw hail over" hardened his heart he and his servants ".

Egyptian gods humiliated in the 6th Plague:

Again, the false gods of Egypt were not helpful, including Sakhmet, a goddess guardian against disease (in addition to its role as goddess of war), Imhotep, the god of medicine, and Isis [8] , the goddess of life and health. Pharaoh's magicians are now too distressed to be present, but Pharaoh's heart is hardened yet. Interestingly, the first narrative declares that God hardened Pharaoh's heart (9:12) -

Note: While all pests are chained and one is a "consequence" of the former, between the 5th and cattle plague of the 6th there is a nexus Ulcers: The anthrax. Do livestock sick with Anthrax and then the disease spread to humans by contact? (Cutaneous anthrax)

What is Anthrax? Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacterium called Bacillus anthracis spore-forming. Anthrax occurs most often in lower vertebrates, wild and domestic (cattle, sheep, goats, camels, antelopes, and other herbivores), but can also occur in humans when they have contact with infected animals or animal tissue infected.

Why is there so much interest on the Anthrax today?
Because Anthrax is considered an agent that can be used in biological warfare, the Department of Defense (DoD) has begun the process required to vaccinate all military personnel activated could be involved in combat.

How common is Anthrax and who can get it?

Anthrax is most common in agricultural regions where animals have the disease. These regions include South and Central America, Southern Europe and Eastern Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and the Middle East. When Anthrax affects humans, it is usually due to an occupational exposure to infected animals or their products. Workers who are exposed to dead animals and animal products from other countries where the Anthrax is more common may become infected with B. anthracis (Anthrax industry). In the United States there have been cases of Anthrax in wild livestock.

How is Anthrax? Anthrax infection can occur in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Spores of B. anthracis can live in the soil for many years, and humans can become infected with Anthrax by handling products from infected animals or by inhaling anthrax spores from contaminated animal products. The Anthrax can also be spread by eating infected meat was not cooked enough. It is rare to find infected animals in the United States.

What are the symptoms of Anthrax? Symptoms of the disease depend on the manner in which contracted, but symptoms usually occur within the first 7 days.
Cutaneous: Most (about 95%) of Anthrax infections occur when the bacterium enters a cut or abrasion on the skin, such as when handling contaminated wool, hides, leather or hair products of infected animals (especially hair of goats). Skin infection begins as a protrusion similar to an insect bite but 1 to 2 days to become a fluid-filled bag and then in a painless ulcer, usually 1 to 3 cm. in diameter, with a characteristic black necrotic (dying) area in the center. Lymph glands in the adjacent area may swell. Approximately 20% of patients who do not receive medical treatment for cutaneous Anthrax cause death. Death is rare with appropriate antimicrobial therapy.
Inhalation: Initial symptoms may be mistaken for a common cold. After several days, the symptoms may worsen to severe breathing problems and shock. The Anthrax inhalation is usually fatal.
Intestinal: The intestinal disease form of Anthrax may be the result of consumption of contaminated meat and acute inflammation of the intestinal tract. The first symptoms of nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, and fever are followed by abdominal pain, vomiting of blood, and severe diarrhea. In 25% to 60% of intestinal Anthrax cases the end result is death.

Do you normally, where is the Anthrax? Anthrax is found all over the world. It is more common in developing countries or countries without veterinary public health programs. Certain regions of the world (South America, Central America, Southern Europe and Eastern Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and the Middle East) report more Anthrax in animals than in other countries.

Can be transmitted from person to person Anthrax? The risk that the Anthrax is spread from person to person is very unlikely. No need to worry about contracting the disease if or by visiting a patient who has inhaled Anthrax.

7th Plague of Hail, Ex 9:13-35.
       A. 9:16, "I have made to show you my power and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth." Undoubtedly, the Egyptians and other nations realized the great power of God because of these pests.
       B. 9:19, gave them a chance to escape this terrible plague of hail.
       C. 9:20 am, even the servants of Pharaoh took this warning.
       D. 9:23, 24, the ferocity of thunder, hail and fire ... killed men and beasts, destroyed all the grass and all the trees.
       E. He humbled Pharaoh. "I have sinned ... Pray to the LORD for the suppression of God's thunder and hail, and I will let you go," but as soon thunder and hail ceased, he hardened his heart again.

Egyptian gods humiliated in the 7th Plague
Hail: This plague killed servants, animals and livestock if they were indoors. Plants and trees were also destroyed, including field crops. This was an extremely severe thunder storm of icy hail and that the "fire" was released to ground lightning is as we read in Psalm 78 "He destroyed their vines with hail, and their sycamore trees with frost and hail their beasts gave the , And their cattle fiery lightning "(verses 47-48.) These destructive elements, of course, had a devastating impact on the food supply of the nation. And even the gods of Egypt were powerless, the goddesses of the sky, Nut and Hathor, the sky god, Horus, Shu, the air god and giver of heaven, Seth, the god of storms and protector of crops; Napier, the god of grain crops; Osiris, the ruler of life, and all the deities in the form of cow and sheep above, were powerless against the true God. Pharaoh softened now - by the time he was. Of course, once aminoraban pests, changed his mind again.

The 8th Plague Locusts: Exodus 10:1-20.
       A. 10:4, 5, locusts come they will cover the face of the earth, eating what the hail did not destroy.
       B. 10:7, even the king's servants were convinced that they should let the people go. "Do not you know yet that Egypt is destroyed?"
       C. 10:8, Pharaoh asks, "Who are they that shall go?" Moses says, "all".
               1. The king says, "only men". Leaving the family in Egypt. As hostages as security for the men to return.
               Two. So Satan deceive many: "You should not force their children to go to church," "let the children enjoy the world. So are the young. Let them go out with their friends. " Joshua 24:15, "I and my house will serve God."
               Two. Another restriction of what God commanded. I wanted to change the order, change it for your convenience. Calls another concession.
       D. 10:15 God's answer: the plague of locusts.
       E. 10:16-20, history repeats itself: Under pressure Pharaoh says, "I have sinned ... forgive my sin ... took away the locusts ... hardened the heart".

Egyptian gods humiliated in the 8th Plague
Lobsters: At this point, the servants of Pharaoh tried to impress him by saying: "Egypt is destroyed" (10:7.) So he resorted to bargain again with Moses. But not accede to the demands of God, a mighty wind brought a plague of locusts upon the earth. The results are horrible to contemplate. What had been left after the hail vegetation is now devoured by locusts. The land is bare. Must have been a wonder to see what was once a fertile land and plentiful and no longer see the green color between plants (verse 15.) Again, Seth, Napier, Osiris and Isis are all challenged - so are Shu , god of air and wind god Amun. This terrible plague must have left the nation to the brink of starvation. In desperation, Pharaoh still confesses sin and ask forgiveness - outwardly. But his contrition is short-lived. For now, Moses may have used enough of Pharaoh's stubbornness not to be surprised when once again Pharaoh changed his mind about releasing the Israelites.

 9 ° The Plague of Darkness: Exodus 10:21
       A. 10:21, "Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there is a darkness over the land of Egypt, both which may be felt."
       B. 10:23 could not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days.
       C. 10:23, but "all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings".
       D. 10:24, puts another restriction to the commandment: go, but let your flocks and herds, ie serve God but leave me your wallet ($).
               1. Mat. 6:34, "You can not serve two masters".
               Two. Being baptized one must be baptized yet and money.
       E. 10:25, "Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice to the LORD ... 26. Our cattle also shall go with us, there will not be a hoof ". It is the only attitude acceptable in the sight of God. "All to Christ I surrender" - time, talent, energy, resources, EVERYTHING.
       F. 10:28 "Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from me, take heed not see my face ... 29 And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well shall not see your face."

Egyptian gods humiliated in the 9th Plague
This darkness lasted three days. The people could not leave their homes due to the impact of this event. This was a frontal attack on the credibility of the Egyptian sun god, known by various names: Re, Ra, Atum, Aten and, sometimes, Horus. In fact, while the Egyptians worshiped many gods, none was so worshiped as the sun. This three-day darkness had quite depressed if any. Again, the Israelites lived in Goshen, were not affected. Pharaoh tried to make a deal and keep the animals of the Israelites who had not been affected by the plagues of Egypt. It was clear that the food supply of the Egyptians at this time were at a critical level, so for him their demands were justified. But before God, Pharaoh was in no position to demand anything. Then he was enraged to the point of threatening them with death if Moses was not lost from sight.

10th Death of the Firstborn Ex 11, 12.
       A. 11:4-6, 12:29, 30
       B. 12:22 23. Instruction very important for the people of Israel to escape this plague.
               1. What would have happened if they were disobedient?
               Two. Noah and family had to be on the ark ... Lot and his family had to leave Sodom ... Rahab and family had to stay indoors ... We have to be in church. It is essential to respect the orders of God.
       C. Institution of the Passover (Lord passed by, pass over the door of the house of Israel provided it was painted with blood).
               1. The 14th of the month of Nisan. Eat the lamb with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.
               Two. Every male of any country should go to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover.

 Egyptian gods humiliated in the 10th Plague
Before leaving, Moses warned Pharaoh about the last plague on Egypt would fall. The firstborn sons of the Egyptians, of the servants who were not Israelites and all their animals would die, from the palaces of Pharaoh to the dungeons. Maybe this punishment was something the Egyptians deserved by the death of the sons of God, Israelites infants at the time of the birth of Moses.
This was the reason that God had given to Moses: "And you shall say to Pharaoh, Thus says the Lord, Israel is my son, my firstborn. Already I told you let my son go, that he may serve me not You refuse to let him go, behold I will kill your son, your firstborn "(Exodus 4:22-23). Also, by killing all the firstborn of the animals, God again again proved its supremacy over the gods of Egypt: "Well, I ... will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of man and beast, and execute judgments against all the gods of Egypt. I am the Lord "(12:12). This would leave no doubt among the Egyptians that the God of Israel was the true God!
Besides all animal deities, what God was doing directly confronted Osiris [9], regarded by the Egyptians as the giver and ruler of life. Moreover, at the end this plague would crush and force Egypt to Pharaoh finally let the Israelites go. This force Pharaoh to act against his will demonstrate the sovereign power of God and his rule over all the gods that it represented: Hu, the god who represented the royal authority Wadjet, the goddess of royal authority Sobek the god who symbolized the strength of the Pharaohs, Maat, the goddess of cosmic order, under whose aegis ruled the kings of Egypt, the goddess of war, Sakhmet, who allegedly breathed fire against the enemies of the pharaoh. Of course, God would win, and would also defeat the Pharaoh, who, as mentioned above, saw himself as the divine incarnation of Horus.
Because of all the miraculous events that had occurred, Moses and the Israelites were respected by the entire nation. And not only respected. As the notes say Nelson Study Bible on Exodus 11:3: "Another highlight of the Exodus from Egypt was the grace (or favor) that the Egyptians had for the Israelites and admiration for its leader. After of all that had happened, we would expect the opposite. But positive feelings were shared by Moses, surprisingly enough, even by the servants of Pharaoh. This, somewhat ironically, was part of the great victory of God over Pharaoh, his enemy (who represents evil, sin, wickedness, and even Satan, see Revelation 15:3). " God told the Israelites that they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver and gold that was in compensation for all the years of his work as slaves. After all they had seen, the Egyptians were not going to complain. But Pharaoh's heart was still so hardened that threatened the life of Moses, as already mentioned. Finally, after giving the last warning came out pretty angry Moses from Pharaoh (11:8). This would be the final confrontation between the two (10:29).


       A. Exodus 12:29-33. Finally, Pharaoh SURRENDERS UNCONDITIONALLY.
Since no conditions. It places restrictions. It does not replace the commandment.
       B. All those who are opposed to the commandments of God must imitate.

We distinguish various courses of the river, especially the Victoria Nile, White Nile and Blue Nile.
The Nile has several sources, their remotest origin are rivers Kagera and Luvironza Akanyaru that arise in Burundi and flow into Lake Victoria. Emerges Nile near Jinja, Uganda, and empties into Lake Kyoga from where it continues under the name of Victoria Nile waters in this area travel a fairly muddy area riparian vegetation partially submerged to Kabalega waterfalls descend after is briefly introduced at one end of Lake Albert (powered by the Semliki River from Lake Edward) and goes on to Nimule, under the name of Albert Nile. The so-called White Nile in northeast Africa and its course runs through the Sudan. It starts in Lake Victoria (which is surrounded by Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania) and runs north to meet in Khartoum the Blue Nile. There the two rivers leads to the Nile proper, tracing the nose of the Nile, from which the city takes its name; Khartoum means elephant trunk. The water flow of the White Nile is much more constant than the Blue Nile, but their contribution is lower, 20%, while that contributes 80%.

On their way north, the river passes through a marshland, clay soil in southern Sudan called Al-Sudd (meaning barrier), along which the main tributaries of the White Nile. Is an equatorial region, with high temperatures at which there is a large water evaporation. This region is very extended and wild (can you say that the channel reaches up to 330 km wide in some areas), with canals and lagoons have inside floating islands of vegetation.

The Blue Nile (in Arabic, al-Bahr al-Azraq, for Ethiopians and Israelis is also the river Gihon or Gihon, Genesis 2.13), Ethiopian-born and goes up to Sudan. Starts at Lake Tana in Amhara northern plateau. To reach this lake about 50 streams that are mixed in the water, the largest of which is the Abbay Wenz (big river). In the section of the Blue Nile for Ethiopia and Sudan water is boxed in a canyon with walls made of volcanic rock, with a maximum width of 25-30 m.

After the connection between the Blue Nile and the White Nile, the river receives another important contribution of Atbara river flow and enters the Sudanese desert drawing a very broad curve in an "S". Then get a last tributary to the height of the city of Al - Dabbah and then enters Egypt to the Mediterranean.


[1] The Egyptian Pantheon has 250 gods.
[2] The Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacterium called Bacillus anthracis spore-forming.
[3] Map of the Nile in the last page.
[4] = Nile Delta Gozen Earth where the Hebrews were isolated.
[5] Barton, Bruce B., Editore Life Application Bible, (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers) 2000, c1996.
[6] The Parana River is an example that we know and have a behavior similar to the Nile
[7] Imhotep was High Priest of Heliopolis and architect. He was also revered by doctors because of the knowledge and mastery of the healing arts attributed to him.

[8] Isis: In Egyptian mythology, goddess of fertility and motherhood. Ancient stories described Isis as having great magical prowess, and was represented in human form was described but often provided with cow horns.

[9] Osiris: One of the main deities in Egyptian mythology. Osiris, representing male productive forces of nature, became identified with the sunset. It was considered, therefore, the ruler of the kingdom of the dead in the mysterious region below the western horizon.


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