STUDY. Creationism & Intelligent Design versus Evolutionary Synthesis & Evolutionists. By Fabian Massa.

Translated from Spanish to English with Google Translator.


A major source of confusion in the debate between " Creationists vs . Evolutionists " is the definition of the very word" evolution. " So I think it's important to start this brief study by the definition of the word.

In the biological context , evolution is a simple micro genetic change in populations of organisms , caused by adaptation to the environment , which are transmitted to subsequent generations .
Also, without endorsing or rejecting the theory of Darwinian natural selection , it is undeniable that in nature the strongest survive , whether animal or vegetable (best adapted to the environment ) and their genetics have survived which is continuously species, at least in the geographical region .

In a colloquial context , the term evolution can refer to any kind of progressive development, and regularly involves a connotation of gradual improvement : the term is understood as a process which results in a better quality or complexity of what evolves . This common definition leads to frequent disagreements when applied erroneously to biological evolution . For example , the idea of ​​" biological return " ( backward evolution ) is aimed misconception to think that evolution is directional or has a specific goal in mind ( cf. Orthogenesis [1 ] ) . Indeed the evolution of organisms as a result brings about an improvement , advances are just situational . Biologists do not consider any kind as " more evolved " or "advanced" than another contemporary , including humans [2 ] .

Just to illustrate this point mention two recent news published in the newspapers :

1. The drama of entire cities in China where people sick with cancer and children born with deformities as a result of industrial pollution [3 ] .

2 . European men have grown 11 centimeters in the last century , according to a study recently in Europe heightened the stature of European males has increased from 1.67 to 1.78 meters between 1870 and 1980 . Scientists attribute this change to better nutrition and medical care [4 ] .

From the biological standpoint , evolution then responds to a number of external stimuli (environment ) to food, pollution, climate change , magnetic, etc. . So evolution does not necessarily imply an improvement or a regression . On this point says Before the End [5 ] [3 ] :
Today we know that natural selection is a fact, but it is a fact that "saves " the species , not one species changing into another. So , preserves a particular species because there are adaptive changes within a species , but these changes has never given rise to a " new" species , if species means a population that has the ability to reproduce. As the evolutionist Colin Patterson , "no one has ever produced a new species through the mechanism of natural selection."

The theory of evolution postulates predates the Darwinists , the theory of Charles Darwin explained evolution by natural selection process in his book The Origin of Species in 1859. The modern evolutionary synthesis carried out in 1940 and other subsequent contributions agiornan complete and evolutionary theory . This theory is characterized by separating the creation of any intervention of God (which is not directly taken into account )

Developing evolutionary theory is as follows:

I. Evolution Theory : This theory holds that all living beings are descended from a single common ancestor being [6 ] .

II. Darwinists postulates [ 7] Although often confused with Evolution Darwinism are two different concepts. The evolution predated Charles Darwin [8 ] and its theory. Darwin 's contribution to evolutionary theory was the concept of " Natural Selection .

III. Natural selection: Natural selection is a phenomenon of evolution as a matter of general law and which is defined as the differential reproduction of genotypes within a biological population ( genetic mutation ) . To explain it so easy, this principle states that individuals who are best suited to the environment where they live ( climate, food , natural cycles , etc. . ) Will be those who survive and therefore to transfer their genetic characteristics to succeeding generations . Natural selection was proposed by Darwin as a means to explain biological evolution. This explanation is based on three premises:

a. The first of which dictates that the characteristic subjected to selection must be heritable .

b . The second argues that there should be trait variability among individuals in a population.

c . The third premise argues that trait variability should result in differences in survival or reproductive success , making some new appearance features can be extended in the population. The accumulation of these changes over the generations produce all evolutionary phenomena .

 IV . Modern evolutionary synthesis . This theory is known also by the following names:

a. new synthesis
b . modern Synthesis
c . evolutionary Synthesis
d. synthetic Theory
e. Neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism .

It is a synthesis of evolutionary theory and the theory of evolution of species by natural selection. With the advancement of genetics ( decoding of the genomes of several species and studies on random genetic mutation ) and statistics (statistics on population genetics ) . Essentially , the modern synthesis introduced the connection between two important discoveries : the unit of evolution ( genes ) with the mechanism of evolution ( selection ) . It also represents the unification of several branches of biology that previously had little in common , especially genetics , cytology , systematics , botany and paleontology .
Now it is clearer what these theories evolutionists Evolutionary and Neo am better able to develop the work 

A. Five scientific arguments refuting evolutionary theory and Modern Evolutionary Synthesis.

Facing the Evolutionary Synthesis , as we shall see in section " D " is a remake of evolutionary theory agiornada plus the contribution Darwinian opposition have emerged from both scientific and religious circles . The fact is that no opposition group has been able to present an alternative that is acceptable to the scientific community.
The slogan Orders Five scientific objections to the theory , but in the purely secular media information only found four . On page found a number of objections , I copied literally . A person who interests you delve deeper into this group of objections , you can do so by logging on the link .

 In non-scientific criticism (although scientific advances arguments ) are the religious communities as Christian ( Protestant ) , the Orthodox Jews and the Islamic (ie all faith-based groups to a Higher Creator deals with its creation ) .
In scientific circles , criticism points to change the Evolutionary Synthesis and not to replace it. Among the things that these scientists propose to add are :

I. Evolutionary Synthesis includes man along with the rest of the animals , which has been rejected by the scientific community but even more religious sectors .

II. Developmental biology that studies the processes of cell growth, cell differentiation and morphogenesis (the process that gives rise to tissues, organs and anatomy ) .

III. Incorporation of certain genetic discoveries as sepigenéticas inheritance , horizontal transmission ( process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not a descendant ), or proposed as the existence of multiple hierarchical levels of selection or the plausibility of phenomena of assimilation genomics to explain macroevolutionary processes ( increasing integration complexity by complementing the increase in complexity by transformation - gradually ) .

 IV . There are other aspects criticized for being too technical that not worth including in this brief report. Yes should be noted that Dr. Lynn Margulis [9 ] who proposed a new paradigm, in which symbiogenetic theory postulated that the symbiosis by which entire genomes are combined , would be the main source of inherited variation and random mutations , being created from this new process "individuals" . This theory has not been accepted by the international scientific community have not been fully demonstrated .
We can see then that unless the paradigm shift proposed by Dr. Lynn Margulis , the consensus of the scientific community really believes that the topics are just disagreements and new ideas on specific points , and really the theory itself has not been challenged in the field of biology , being commonly described as the "cornerstone of modern biology ."

       V. PROBLEMS WITH THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION - Points Treaties [10 ]
There is no evidence that pre - biotic soup existed, and assuming it existed, yet no mechanisms to support the chemical evolution of life.
No fossils exist transitive trillion only missing links in both realms , both animal and vegetable .
The sudden appearance of complex life forms (not ancestors) in the deeper layers of the crust.
There is no evidence that inert matter can be transformed into living matter through through " natural processes " .
There are no mechanisms or explanations valid for any of the processes by which it is thought that evolution has occurred . Synthesis .

       B. Evolution and Creationism evolutionary deist .

1. evolution deist
Deism is a philosophical position that accepts the existence and nature of God through reason and personal experience rather than through the common elements of the theistic religions [11 ] as a direct revelation , faith or tradition. God is a Creator or Organiser of the Universe , is the first cause. In simpler words : a deist is one who is inclined to assert the existence of God , but does not practice any religion. For a deist , God's revelation is an act of reason , they do not take it by faith , not based on the Scriptures . For this reason " not recorded " supernatural events such as prophecy , miracles , revelations . They conceive of God as being located somewhere in the universe running everything as if it were a clockwork . To the Deists sacred texts of various religions are just " men 's work " . Deism emerged strongly in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe during the period known as " enlightenment" . Curiously, the area in which is born Christians who did not believe in the Trinity , the virginity of Mary to conceive Jesus and less to the miraculous works of Christ and the Holy Spirit.
Deists generally reject organized religion and personal gods "revealed" arguing that God is the creator of the world , but not in any way involved in the tasks of the world, although this position is not strictly part of the deist philosophy . For them , God reveals himself indirectly through laws of nature described by the natural sciences. That is also why this belief is called " Natural Religion " .
Postulates deists [12 ] :

1. Ensures the existence of God , but does not accept the tenets of any particular religion .
2 . Consider that God created the universe and the laws of nature , but does not accept that is represented wholly or partly in books or writings considered sacred .

3 . Use reason to think about how you can be God , rather than accepting that indoctrinate upon Him
4. Prefer to guide their ethical choices through their conscience and rational reflection , rather than adapt to the dictates of religious authorities sacred books .
5. Enjoy the freedom to seek spirituality in itself , and its spiritual life has been shaped by tradition or religious authority.
6 . Prefers considered rational or spiritual rather than religious .
7 . Consider that there are basic beliefs that are very rational religious after removing what may have of superstition.
8 . Affirms that religion and state should be separate.

Famous deists
· Thomas Paine
· Voltaire
· Jean - Jacques Rousseau
· Montesquieu
· Socrates
· Plato
· Aristotle
· Gottfried Leibniz
· Benjamin Franklin
· George Washington
· Thomas Jefferson
· Edward Herbert
· Ethan Allen
· Thomas Hobbes
· John Locke
· John Quincy Adams
· James Madison
· Immanuel Kant
· Thomas Edison
· Maximilien Robespierre
· Walt Whitman
· John Lennon
· Neil Armstrong
· Antony Flew
· Melchor Ocampo

2 . Evolutionary Creationism

Evolutionary Creationism [ 13 ] is a movement (to call it that) which although has a root theist ( Creation as the work of God and governed by Him ) also takes some elements of the Evolutionary Synthesis . Evolutionary Creationism Theism walks near the Evolutionary [ 14 ] . Both strands share the following reasoning :

      I. Modern science today is the tool God gives man to discover the greatness of His creation .

    II. In order to handle these tools is that God has given us the ability ( gift )

The most important difference between the two currents is that while theistic evolution is not interfering with the development of natural science , Creationism ( both classical and Intelligent Design ) is clearly anti-evolution .
Because the latter is that theistic evolution is accepted without problems between scientists who believe in God and among Catholics (unlike what happens with Intelligent Design ) .
Theistic evolution (mostly given in Catholicism ) and Evolutionary Creationism 
(It occurs in Protestant circles ) are halfway point of Creationism and Evolution pure pure .

C. Intelligent Design

This movement is relatively recent, emerging in the U.S. in 1987 .
You could say that this movement is a recreation of Biblical Creationism obviously failed in his attempt to impose the biblical account of the Creation in institutional teaching against evolutionary theory.
Like the classic Creationism , Intelligent Design [ 15 ] rejects theistic evolution movements [ 16] and evolutionary creationism .
Inside the Discovery Institute prominently the Center for Science and Culture ( Center for Science and Culture ) , under which fall all leading members of the Intelligent Design Movement . It was founded in 1996 with funding from H. Ahmanson and McLellan Foundation , originally as The Center for Renewal of Science and Culture ( Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture) . His comments , as its name , have evolved to avoid too visible connection with their fundamentalist base .
A 1998 paper by the Center for Science and Culture , entitled Wedge Strategy (in English The Wedge Strategy) 3 and leaked to the public in 1999 , has been used by critics to highlight the religious and political character of its purposes and principles , which are summarized in phrases like " Defeat the scientific materialism and its destructive moral heritage , cultural and political " and "replace materialistic explanations with the theistic understanding that nature and human beings are created by God." According P. E. Johnson , quoted above , he in 1992 catalyzed the formation of the group and the features of the strategy referred to in the document. In this original nucleus formed part , with Johnson :

• Stephen Meyer , a philosopher of science and theologian who is now vice president of the center.

• Michael Behe , biochemist and the only prominent member with significant activity of scientific research.

• William A. Dembski , the chief spokesman of the movement. Mathematician by training , is responsible for increased efforts to develop a credible the argument from improbability of naturalistic explanation .

Basically the Intelligent Design Theory is based precisely on that absolutely everything that we see or study the cosmos reflects a general design . But if we are to each particular design within Overall , we see that all " fit " harmoniously . Such " perfection" is too coincidental , responding more to a " Causality" which evidently is that there was a " Super Intelligent designer " behind the design.

D. conclusion

From the study it is clear that there are two extreme positions :

a. Historic Creationism or Intelligent Design remake , where you take the Bible literally.

b . The Theory of Evolution or Evolutionary Synthesis agiornada where God has no place nor the stories of Biblical Creation .

And also intermediate positions to accept the existence of God as Creator, who has ignored some processes in nature, left a bit random evolution of his creatures. In these groups ( most markedly among Catholics ) the biblical accounts of creation are simply allegorical .

a. Evolutionary Theism

b . Evolutionary Creationism

Personally I reject the two extreme positions , because both sides are closed and do nothing to disqualify each other .

The intermediate positions have their strengths and weaknesses . You definitely can not accept the Catholic position Evolutionary Theism , because it contradicts itself : It's like wanting to be at peace with God and with the devil.

Evolutionary Creationism tries to reconcile both sides, but neither gets imposed.

It is a difficult issue because to reach a conclusion to be investigated on highly technical and scientific . We agree that not all people have the desire ( or the tools or proper training ) to study these issues in depth . And most importantly, there are things that people must determine by faith , decided to believe , whether or not a scientific argument , whether or not evidence.

Evolutionists think they're intellectuals and brain , but bear -human faith to believe that a " primordial soup " [ 17 ] [ 14 ] "which produced the first carbon compounds ( organic chemistry base ) that formed the "bricks " essential for the emergence of life on the planet ( amino acids, proteins , nucleic acids , etc. . ) . While it is entirely feasible the emergence of organic chemicals as described in special conditions , such as those assumed in the Earth were in their early geological times [ 18 ] , this does not explain or imply that a chemical based carbon skips to the mysterious and complex phenomenon of life .

Skip to study a very interesting laboratory experiment to conceive chemical reactions can leave a living requires an infinite capacity to believe : The Evolutionary Synthesis argue that these organic compounds were arranged randomly , and resulted in a first living cell , which then left multiplying . The cells were organized to form a first multicellular animal , which was playing and was eventually giving rise to a variety of animals and which descend all current . All processes have given at random ( without an order or direction, pure trial and error ) . Furthermore, in the event that this were so, the time that the Evolutionists give for the process ( about 4,000 million years ago) , could be few to achieve biodiversity complex there today on the planet through a process of trial and error. Wonderful, you have to have a lot of faith to believe this theory ! .

However reject the theory of evolution or evolutionary synthesis involves not reject all scientific research , in fact scientific disciplines has made ​​important contributions to evidence confirming the veracity of the Bible [ 19 ] .Moreover, the arguments of the Creationists Orthodox , which in some cases are very valid , for example :

       Objections to Evolutionary Synthesis - Groups historical or Orthodox Christian creationists [ 20 ]

1. There is no evidence that pre - biotic soup existed, and assuming it existed, yet no mechanisms to support the chemical evolution of life.

Two . No fossils exist transitive trillion only missing links in both realms , both animal and vegetable .

Three . The sudden appearance of complex life forms (not ancestors) in the deeper layers of the crust.

April . There is no evidence that inert matter can be transformed into living matter through through " natural processes " .

There are no mechanisms or explanations valid for any of the processes by which it is thought that evolution has occurred . Synthesis .

While these arguments are valid as criticism, Creationists usually do not provide an alternative that can be verified and so are rejected by the scientific community .

Among the things that produce more rejection of orthodox creationism stance ( even Christian sectors ) have basically four points :

1. The fact that criticize scientific methods (basically the issue of the dating of fossils and geological events ) but do not propose any system that improves the measurements.

2. Taking some passages literally and denial of real concrete elements such as fossils , archaeological evidence , geological evidence , etc. .

3. Seeing as only certain " interpretation " of Scripture .

4. The want to impose biblical stories , which is possible only believe them by faith.

Basically the problem of the "times " for historical creationists is that considered literally six days of the first story of Creation :

First Story , Genesis 1.1 to 1.31 : The first chapter of Genesis tells us the reality of an absolute beginning , "before Principle [ 21 ]" God and was ( The pre-existence of God [ 22 ] ) and He is the creator of " the Heavens and the Earth " is all that a man can see . This narrative covers a period of seven days , the Hebrew word for day is YOM . This word , as scholars in the language provided it is preceded by an adjective or ordinal numeral , should be translated as twenty four hour day . This concept is based more conservative denominations to take the concept literally twenty-four hours seven days ( the week of Creation) , an example of this is the biblical commentary on this verse of Jamieson , Fausset & Brown , which clarifies that , according to the definition for Strong 3117 YOM = DAY, is Hebrew means NIGHT HEAT while winding , since it involves all things. This implied that the phrase the DAY and NIGHT involve a succession followed HEAT LIGHT - DARK - NIGHT , which the authors associated with the cycle NIGHT - DAY [ 23 ] . Jamieson - Fausset - Brown argue that either the sun has been created before or at the same time the earth , it would have been darkened because of the existence of atmospheric vapors and mists that surrounded the planet's surface , which mandated dissipated God to give light. Moreover, if we consider that the sun was created on the fourth day , could be established parallels between Gen. 1.3 light with emanating directly from God in Revelation 22.5. According to a less conservative , the "Days of Creation " should be taken as alternating periods of light and darkness of indeterminate duration of time [ 24 ] . With respect to the times of Gen. 1 Dr. Esteban Voth , says: " It is interesting to note that when the Hebrew text mentions the number of each day does so without the definite article . In other words it does not say on the first day but a one day " [ 25 ] So, according to this line of thought, God began his creative work the first day and last indefinitely , in other re-created second day following. So although we have had seven days of creative work that week would fall within an indeterminate period of time.

Introduction, Genesis 1.1 -2: 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth . 2 And the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep , and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. In this story it presents God as the Creator of all the universe . The beginning of verse 1 "In the beginning " gives the name to the section of the Torah between Gen.1.1 and 6.8 (Be Reshit [ 26 ] ) . Is passage serves as an introduction to the first account of Creation. The Hebrew verb bara create in [ 27 ] and has only God as subject executor [28 ] . And void ( tohu va Bohu [ 29 ] ) Some scholars argue between verse 1 and 2 there was a wide range of time , during which some kind of event caused chaos in the perfect creation of God. The NIV Archaeological says that according to the Hebrew syntax rejects this view [ 30 ] , with respect to this theologian Felix Garcia Lopez in his book The Pentateuch [ 31 ] " says: " The introduction (v. 1-2 ) highlights the chaotic situation before beginning the creative work itself . " Among the peoples of the East is widely believed that before Creation was all a Great Chaos , the Word of God creates and brings order and meaning to things [ 32 ] . ... And darkness was upon the face of the deep [ 33 ] . Darkness is the translation of kjoshek [ 34 ], which means sinister darkness . According to Esteban Voth , in this context the two words associated express evil that opposes or endangers the life [ 35 ] .


My position is simple , God created the heavens and the earth ( Gen. 1.1 ), ie , everything. Before our three-dimensional universe , all that existed was him all things were created by God through His Word ( John 1:3 ) , which is to say that there was no material before him believed that he seems a truism but it is the same as holding the Big Bang theory , that before the universe is , there was nothing material Obviously the theory in question does not speak of God because he refuses, but agrees with the Bible in that there was a principle of the matter in space - time of our universe today . The theme of the times , and what the preacher said : " Everything has its time under the sun " (Ecclesiastes 3.11 ) is, in our material reality.

Paul says in his Letter to the Romans:

19 since what may be known about God is plain to them , because God has shown it . 20 For since the creation of the world his invisible attributes , namely , his eternal power and divine nature , have been clearly perceived through what has been made , so that men are without excuse . Ro . 1.19 - 20 NIV .

In what is clearly perceived that creation was a process that has taken time and that is written in the world, for example in the Grand Canyon , in the great mountain ranges . They have also been scarred as meteorite craters with ages far exceed 6,000 years. They have been fossil evidence are undeniable. Wanting to compress the time to make them fit on a literal interpretation does not seem reasonable and not even a matter of faith .

In my view, with this kind of attitude closed, it is much more the number of people away from the things of God that we cuddle . Orthodox Creationists are perceived by some sectors of Christianity itself as a proud and sectarian group . His underlying message could be summarized as : "We ( the Creationists Orthodox) understood the truth of Scripture through the only correct interpretation , we have the Holy Spirit and fire everyone who does not think like us ....... we will pray for you to also be saved "

Outside of Christianity , Creationists ( like all other fundamentalists regardless of creed are ) are outright rejected by society.


If we look around us Anything: A flower, a landscape, a starry night , the design of the fur of animals , aquarium fish , ourselves , etc. . If we pay attention to detail in the strands of a leaf and how different it is that piece of the leaves of another tree , one will come to our mind the idea of ​​how wonderful the Creation and how great is the One who made all things . Although we can not determine , how and when it did, at the bottom of our hearts we all intuit that there is God the author of creation.


[1 ] The Orthogenesis , orthogenetic evolution , progressive evolution or autogenesis , is a biological hypothesis according to which life has an innate tendency to evolve in a unilinear due to some " driving force " either internal or external. The hypothesis has philosophical foundations essentialism , teleology , and theology , and proposes an intrinsic strength that slowly transforms species . George Gaylord Simpson in 1953 in an attack orthogenesis this mechanism called " the mysterious inner force " . Proponents orthogenesis classics have rejected the theory of natural selection (such as organizing mechanism of evolution) , and theories of speciation ( which states that a species gives rise to another ) for a model of guided evolution straight acting discrete species with " essences " . % C3 % A9nesis
[3 ] See The People of Cancer : / / 07/study-china-peoples-of-cancer-1.html
[4 ] ( )

[6 ] % C3 % ADa_de_la_evoluci % C3 % B3n
[8 ] English naturalist Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 , 1809 - April 19, 1882 ) .
[9 ] Lynn Margulis Lynn born as Alexander ( Chicago , March 5, 1938 - November 22 , 2011) was a prominent American biologist , regarded as one of the leading figures in the field of biological evolution , about the origin of the cells eukaryotes. Bachelor of Science from the University of Chicago , MA in the University of Wisconsin- Madison and a PhD from the University of California at Berkeley , was a member of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States since 1983 and of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 2008 he received the Darwin -Wallace Medal . In 2011 he was named Distinguished Professor , Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
[11 ] Theism ( θεóς Greek , theos , "God" ) is generally understood as the belief in deities , or the belief in a creator of the universe that is committed to its maintenance and administration ( cosmogony ) . Belief is a position that is acquired for various reasons .
[12 ] % C3 % ADsmo
[ 14 ] % C3 % B3n_te % C3 % ADsta
[15] % C3% B1o_inteligente
[ 16 ] The Theists and evolutionary creationists consider God as Creator , but not outright reject science ( consider that God gave them as gifts understanding and intelligence , and research and its processes creation is ultimately the Great Obre study of God ) as do the creationists , who take literally the Bible reading .
[ 17 ] The primordial soup , also called primitive , primary, of life, primordial soup , or nutritional prebiotic , among other names , is the focus of the most accepted hypothesis for the creation of life on our planet . The experiment is mainly based on a tight play in conditions that occurred in the earth millions of years along with the primeval soup , that is, the elements in the proportions in which they were then. Fluid , rich in organic compounds , consists of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen mostly , exposed to ultraviolet light and electricity. The result is generated simple RNA structures , at the time the early version DNA base living creatures. Part of this result led to the theory dawkinsiana (not Darwinian ) evolution. The concept is due to Russian biologist Alexander Oparin , who in 1924 postulated the hypothesis that the origin of life on Earth is due to the gradual chemical evolution from carbon-based molecules , so all abiotic .

[ 18 ] It has recreated the possible primitive planetary atmosphere in the famous laboratory experiments like Stanley Miller demonstrated an experimental model of primordial soup in 1953 at the University of Chicago .
Stanley Miller introduced water, methane , ammonia and hydrogen in a glass container to simulate the alleged conditions of the early Earth . The mixture was exposed to electric shock , a week later, a paper chromatography showed that had formed various amino acids and other organic molecules .
[ 19 ] See : ENGLISH : ; / 02/el-cielo-6-y-dijo-dios-exista.html ; ; / 02/creer-en-dios-y-en-su-palabra-con-la.html ; ; http :/ / / / ENGLISH : 02/believe-in-god-and-his-word-with.html ; ; http://www.tesorosdesabiduria . com/2013/03/isaiah-and-big-bang-big-crunch-and-big.html ; chicken- by.html
[ 21 ] See Proverbs 8.22-23
[ 22 ] A major difference from the mythologies of the surrounding cultures , where many of their gods have their "birth" in the process of creation. We will see this point when we discuss the parallels developed within this chapter.
[ 23 ] Exegetical and Explanatory Commentary of the Bible , Volume I, Baptist House Publications , El Paso, Texas , USA Jamieson , Fausset & Brown , page 20 .
[ 24 ] Archaeological NIV Bible , Zondervan 2009 , Florida USA; commentary Gen. 1.1 - 31 , page 4
[ 25 ] Genesis 1 Part of Stephen Voth , page 63 .
[ 26 ] Reshit , Strong's # 7225 . Heb . Principle.
[ 27 ] Bara, Strong's # 1254. Heb . Creating , producing . Word associated with God 's unique ability to create the nda , unlike the man who recreates things from others.
[ 28 ] Bible RVR95 United Bible Societies , 1995 Colombia . Comment footnote 23
[ 29 ] Disordered and empty : the translation of " tohu VABOHU " A Tohu analysis indicates the idea of ​​desolation associated bohu , the concept would utter desolation , a concept of anti-life. Genesis 1 Part of Stephen Voth , page 36 .
[ 30 ] Archaeological NIV Bible , Zondervan 2009 , Florida USA; commentary Gen. 1.1 - 31 , page 4
[ 31 ] The Pentateuch is the 3rd volume of the collection Introduction to the study of the Bible Editorial Verbo Divino , Navarra , Spain . Year 2004 .
[ 32 ] Bible RVR95 United Bible Societies , 1995 edition Colombia . Comment footnote 23
[ 33 ] Abyss , Strong # 8415 : TEHOM , deep , deep water .
[ 34 ] Kjoshek , Strong # 2822 : Dark , gloomy , dark .
[ 35 ] Review Hispano , Genesis Part 1 , page 36.


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