STUDY . Noah's Ark , Part I. By Fabian Massa.

Translated from Spanish to English with Google Translator.

An investigation of Adrian Pablos & Fabian Massa.

Part I.

 1. The wickedness of human beings

The Flood , according to the Bible , is a judgment of God upon creation. The cause of this was the iniquity of man, which was of such magnitude that manifested itself in each of their shares , corrupting and polluting all creation of the Almighty .

May God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth , and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually ; 6 and it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth , and it grieved him at his heart. 7 So the LORD said, " will wipe from the face of the earth to men whom I have created from man and beast, and creeping thing and birds of the air , for I am sorry that I made them . '8 But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord . Genesis 6 . 5-8 : RVR1995
Verse 6 shows how the Lord was hurt by the evil deeds of men who choose to " sweep " all creation ( verse 7 ) . This judgment of God was over all the earth and over every creature , so it qualifies as a mega flood universal catastrophe .

Yet God chooses to save Noah and his family and also entrust the mission to preserve the animals. You could say that God gave Noah the rescue of the planet's biodiversity for certain extinction [1 ] .

Two . Materials and techniques given by God to build the ark .

The explanations about the materials and techniques used to build Noah 's Ark are scarce. Here we present the data we found :

a. the Wood
Genesis 6.14 Make for yourself an ark of cypress wood ( gopher ) compartments will make in the ark , and untarás inside and out with pitch (pitch). Torah
                   The word for " ark " in Hebrew is " tebah " , the same as in Exodus 2:3 [2 ] ( 8392 STRONG : Box , coffer , ark, ark . ) The ship was completely built in wood " Gofer " ( ? Cypress [3] ? ; ? Cedar [4] ? ) caulked inside and outside .

b . The " Caulking [5 ]"

The caulking process [6 ] is an art , which is almost lost , because most of the hulls of small and medium vessels today are made of fiberglass and steel major naval . Caulking is inserted between the boards of the structure of a vessel wood tar embedded tow ( tar ) to prevent water ingress .

When the timber is in contact with water, its volume increases and tables pressed against each other compressing the caulking , thereby achieving a high sealing coefficient [7] .
Caulking process depends on the type of wood and thickness of the boards , for example, when they exceed 4.5 cm thick, before fitting it is necessary to make a cut edges chamfered at about 2 cm. abroad ( this process is necessary to use a brush or garlopa [8] ) . Ark if because of their large size , the thickness of the boards must have been considerable .

The caulking is to apply several layers of tar using a large paintbrush . The whole process of building a wooden vessel of such dimensions is time consuming and skilled labor . So not credible that such a task has been carried out only by Noah and his three sons , ( bearing in mind that all the work was manual ) instead if possible for an army of workers.

In previous chapters we have presented the hypothesis that the patriarchs prediluvianos been the kings of the Sumerian culture , both in the previous period and the immediate post- Flood. If the situation had been this , the task of building the Ark could have been a corporate work [9 ] .

Dimension tables.

We know that Genesis was written by Moses , and understand the unit of measurement ( Egyptian side , because that was the culture in which it was developed and educated Moses) may have replaced the unit of measurement used effectively by Noah (equivalent to elbow ) or not, considering that most of the cultures of all times and in all regions have taken as units of measure human body parts (elbow , foot, hand , thumb , fingers, etc ....) . Having measures imply understanding of numbers, and a way to plot the same ( type of writing ) , so you post .

The absence of any document identified as antediluvian , on this point we can only hazard hypothesis , based on the evolution of the cultures from which if we have elements .
For example, in ancient civilizations used the decimal system , which is mainly derived from a natural event : the human being needed to make a symbolic representation of the count with his own body , and for that it was basically the 10 fingers and although this was not the only system used by mankind [10 ] it was the most widespread.

Just as an example : The Romans instead counted on the fingers of one hand and so his system was based on the n ° 5, and this is evident when we see their numbers written :
I - 1 II - 2 III - 3 IV - 5 V - 5

And now begins another cycle retelling the same five fingers :

VI - 6 VII - 7 VIII - 8 IX - 9 X - 10 .

( A X V graphically superimposed two , or two times a hand equal to two times five )

Another important detail is that the Romans used the letters of the alphabet and numbers ( like the Greeks) , so we understand the numbers and writing are generally associated .

Three . The measures of the Ark

The measures that Noah received from God for the ship were the following , Gen. 6.15:
And so you shall make it : three hundred cubits of the ark , fifty cubits wide and thirty cubits high . RV 60
300 cubits [11 ] = 135 m long (35 feet longer than a football field training)
50 cubits wide = 22.5 m ( Almost ¼ of apple )
30 cubits in height = 13.5 m . ( Practically the height of a building of 4 floors)

April . The construction of the ark .
Respecting the measures mentioned above, gives the equivalent of a merchant vessel [12 ] of 14,450 tons gross load capacity (displacement) with 41 thousand cubic meters of interior space. The ship had three decks , approximately 3037 m2 each, making a total of 9,111 m2 of floor space storage .

The work involved building the Ark was very important :
The design of each part of the ship , obviously the Lord gave Noah .
¿To design and manufacture (create) the necessary tools for all work ? Perhaps we should understand that such technology or capacity building was typical of civilization to which Noah belonged . This point we will play again in the final conclusions that secure our position.
Cut the trees ( many)
Stripped of all bark , clean and cut the boards , obviously all of the same measure , then brush them and store them for you to park and can be assembled .
Prepare the fasteners : nails ? Wooden Dowels ? ? On this point , in Gen. 4.22 says: " And tzil -lá , she also bore Tubal - Cain , who forged all cutting tool of copper and iron ... "
Tubal - Cain : Expert in copper and iron tools ? This verse is very important, as the Iron Age period is within the " History " which is much later [ 13 ] . In the Bible we are talking about Prehistoric Period [ 14 ] . This reinforces our belief that pre-Flood civilization was far more advanced than we thought [ 15 ] .
Build the hull, naval engineering masterpiece of all time .
Start construction. Such a work requires many man / hours (and many men working hard ) .
· Economically speaking , materials and labor obviously have a cost, which in the scope of work , must have been quite high. A Johan Huibers [ 16 ] his project ARK I cost him 1 Million Euros . See image 11.1 .
· This technical difficulty , remember that the Ark was a ship with Tn 14.4500 . displacement , boat of this size were only achievable in our era from the year 1940 and only in steel. That is, from the secular perspective , the construction of the Ark is plain and simply a " fable, " an impossible and totally true appreciation : The Ark and every detail in its construction , its cargo , the adventures of the trip, maintaining the load line with expectations of returning to repopulate the Earth , and all other points involved are really IMPOSSIBLE without full and direct intervention of God.
It must have been very hard to withstand the ridicule during construction of the ark to Noah and his family. We think that only Noah and his sons heard the voice of God and also none of them knew of what he spoke his father, he knew it was the rain . Meeting the costs of building and despair of children , daughters and wife of Noah to that magnitude of spending for a long time , since the work was gigantic . Upload the ark at the command of God that Noah just listened again , imagine that there was suspicion , backbiting , suspicion and fear , but we must emphasize that all this took precedence over obedience to Noah and the Word of God, while all other outside Noah's family were "eating and drinking" . But we believe them to see that the flood was a reality, had a sincere thanks to God for his mercy , respect for his father and delight that the entire family would be saved in the ark .
· Noah 's great work on the construction of the Ark is not properly appreciated by most readers , who take the story as a story, or by instructors , who generally do not delve into technical details or not meditated enough about the complexity of the case and for that reason did not teach congregations. One criticism that tries to "sink " the credibility of the story of the ark , lies that before I could even consider a project like this , Noah would have needed a thorough education in naval architecture and design and in fields that do not appear by thousands of years , such as physics , mechanics, and structural analysis .
      Wooden boats longer the six-masted schooners nineteenth century , which were less than half the length of the ark and had serious problems of structure: Wood tends to deform in such long stretches because of the pressures and twists it is subjected during navigation. Also we should consider the tools, what natural, economic and human resources , as they study the chapters along XI and XII. Some creationists guarantee the excellent performance of Noah as a builder based only on the information and inspiration given by God (which is absolutely essential ) necessarily ignoring Noah would have had a base of culture, knowledge and resources available for such an undertaking .

This post is an excerpt from the book " From Eden to the Nations" Pablos & Fabian Adrian Massa , which will be published in early 2014.

[1 ] The term biodiversity , was taken in the XXI century by American Museum of Natural History of the United States, the note of the newspaper La Nacion of Buenos Aires, Argentina , on Wednesday May 9, 2001 : Scientists at the American Museum of Natural History the United States is building a twenty-first century version of Noah's ark . But this time the animals will not go in pairs , but in small bits and pieces frozen . The tissues of the specimens, from algae to insects and small parts of whales - are a treasure trove for researchers using genetic techniques to study wildlife , and perhaps one day become a source of raw material for the creation of clones of animals extinct or endangered. All of this is out of view of visitors to the museum. In a new laboratory of 700 square meters built in the basement of the museum , each of the nine stainless steel vessels eventually contain up to 70,000 tissue samples immersed in liquid nitrogen. . View full in the appendix.

[2 ] But can not hide it any longer , she took for him an ark of reeds and daubed with tar and with pitch , and put the child therein , and laid it in the reeds by the bank of the river.
[3 ] The common or Mediterranean cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens ) is an evergreen tree of longevity , existing copies with more than 1,000 years. Its trunk is straight and may reach up to 1 meter in diameter, although exceptionally found copies of up to 3 meters at its base. Bark thin , more or less smooth , gray on young trees with age changes to a dark brown longitudinal cracks . Its wood is light brown , gnarled , strong and fairly light . Not resinous , but exhale a perfume reminiscent of cedar wood . It's very long , it is considered rot and there is no insect that attack .
[4 ] The cedar is conferred from the Middle East , fragrant wood tree , vertical or conical crown , widely used for the decoration of parks. In the Bible also contains the name " Juniper " . The wood is resinous and has imputridez properties make it ideal for shipbuilding
[6] Caulking the action of introducing, between the planks of the hull of a vessel wood embedded tow pitch (coal tar) to prevent water ingress .
[7 ] Sealing f . Quality of what is tight , closed and held incommunicado .
[8] Garlopa : f . carpentry. Long brush handle and which serves to equalize the wood surfaces once brushed. Spanish language dictionary © 2005 Espasa -Calpe .

[9 ] The great buildings of antiquity were held by the cooperative effort of the State, which used slave labor generally .
[10 ] The Maya had a system based on the n ° 20 , because it used to count the fingers and toes .

[11 ] Elbow : This paper took the Egyptian cubit , the 1 cubit = 0.45 cm . The elbow is an anthropomorphic measure used by many ancient cultures . In each of them has a different length measurement . See Appendix .
[12 ] freighter .
[ 13 ] The first known appearance of partnerships with cultural and technological level corresponding to the Iron Age is given in the twelfth century to C. ( 1200 BC)
[ 14 ] The advent of writing (as a way to document) is what makes the change of Prehistoric Period to Period History .
[ 15 ] Although the iron they had were of extraterrestrial origin ( Meteorites ) , its handling requires a high level knowledge of metallurgy. See Appendix, Section Ch. 4
[ 16 ] See note in Appendix.


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