STUDY . Flood Legends in different cultures . By Fabian Massa

Translated from Spanish to English with Google Translator.

A study conducted by Adrian Pablos & Fabian Massa.

a. introduction
There are over five hundred myths of the Flood . In this post we present a few, but in the book " From Eden to religion " ( which this post was removed) have included legends of the Americas and Oceania.
It is important to pay special attention to the stories of the following cultures : Sumerian , Chaldean , Babylonian and Greek , because then we'll do a comparative study of their respective worldviews related to the biblical account of the Flood :

Interpretation of Judeo - Christian 

Bible that the only survivors of the flood were Noah, his family and a number of pairs of animals , sailing in a gigantic ark . The flood lasted 40 days and 40 nights , in which the waters covered everything and the fountains of the deep were opened . The total duration of the event since it began until Noah and the Ark passengers were allowed to disembark , was 370 days. In the weeks before the landing , Noah released a dove and a raven and only come to land ( On Mount Ararat ) after the dove did not return from his third flight .

Interpretation of the Sumerian tradition : 

The Mesopotamian tablets are a source of valuable information about the flood . According to the Sumerian inscriptions , survivors were Khisustros family (or Khasistrata ) , friends , pets and birds , on board a ship in a cube of 5 stages [1 ] long and 5 meters wide ( ie a cube 870 meters on a side) . " A terrible jet of water rose to the sky , the ocean broke the bank and the river , its banks " ( a direct reference to groundwater emerging at high pressure : The breaking of the "sources of the Abyss " ) . Gordyene Mountains of Armenia were the refuge of the survivors [ 2], which again Sippara to unearth memories of their destroyed civilization.
Chaldean tradition Interpretation : Among the Chaldeans , the name of the survivor is Xisuthrus . He was the god Cronos ( Known in Moab later under the name of Chemosh and Palestine as Móloc ) who warned of what would happen and ordered him to build a ship, five stages for two , which was home to his family , his friends and two of each animal species. The method to find out if he could get out is the same : release birds on until one came back, he found evidence that land . Then made ​​the appropriate sacrifices to the gods , understanding that the danger had passed .

Interpretation of the Assyrian tradition - Babylonian : 

The legend of Utnapishtim [ 3], the " Noah " Babylonian , is included in the " Epic of Gilgamesh [4 ]" who was the 5th King of Erech [5 ] to the 2700/2800 BC However, some scholars believe was a real character / historical reigned in the former location of Uruk (now under the Euphrates River ) around 1800 . C. [6] . In this story, the flood was long before cataclysm in which Utnapishtim and his wife received from the gods immortality . The oldest version that now has this poem is 12 clay tablets belonging to the library of Nineveh 's last Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (reigned between 669 a. C and 627 a.) Named in the book of Ezra ( 4.10) Osnappar ( RV60 , 95 , NIV ) and the New Jerusalem Bible (1976 ) "Grand Ashurbanipal . "

Interpretation of the Sumerian tradition of the myth of Utnapishtim : 

This legend says that the god Enlil [7 ] , tired of the noise that caused the inhabitants of the land , decides to eliminate the human race through a flood. Another god named Enki [8 ] , takes pity on humans and warns Utnapishtim (Sumerian Ziusudra , [9 ] King of Shuruppak ) the coming disaster . He advised that manufactures a boat and keep it a pair of every animal species on earth. Utnapishtim follow his advice and thus save humanity and animals.

Assyrian tradition Interpretation A: 

According to the Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions , Ubaratutu or Khasisatra , accompanied by his family, servants , livestock , and wild animals . They raffled waters on board a ship of 600 cubits long ( 270m ) , and 60 cubits ( 27 m ) tall and wide. The tragedy lasted six days and six nights , in which there were " tidal waves and water jets ... " Again a direct allusion to the emergence of groundwater. The bodies of the drowned floating like seaweed , while the survivors remained on Mount Nizar . The dove which , unlike the raven, did not return , was also the emissary of good news . At the end of the story , and his family Khasisatra became gods .

Assyrian tradition Interpretation B: 

A variant of the above , is found in the Babylonian inscriptions of Ashurbanipal . It reads that " a ship with the seed of life on board " survived a flood that lasted six days and six nights . " On the seventh day , Ut. - Napishstim [10 ]" " looked out and saw that all was quiet . The humanity had returned to mud " (ie , had died ) . The ship ran aground on Mount Nizar . After a while, Utnapishtim sent out a dove, a crow and a sparrow . The crow was eating the corpses and the other birds did not return. After disembarking and dialogue with the gods , was granted immortality.

Interpretation of the Indian tradition A: 

The legend speaks of a man named Manu , who saved a tiny fish teeth of a big one. The small fish , grateful, Manu told : " If I take care to make it big one day save you from the terrible things that are to come." Manu asked what would happen and he would reply, " is about a great flood that will sweep everything on earth " . As the fish grew, Manu it was changing to a larger tank until it became a " Gasha " , the biggest fish on the face of the earth. When the rain started , Manu tied a rope from the boat to fish, and it guided him through the water while the rain fell , leading to a mountain, where it ran aground . We can narrow this legend mentions the survival of aquatic animals.

Interpretation of the Indian tradition B : 

In another India, the Puranas [11 ] ( "wise " ) speak of a ship led by divine fish that saved Satyaurata ( THE Indian Noah ), the flood lasted seven days ( in which the three sources were submerged ) until the fish took the boat ashore. Satyaurata had three children the eldest of whom was called Jyapeti ( Iapetus - Japheth ? ) . The other two were called C'harma Sharma (Shem and Ham ? ) . When the flood was over and they could return to settle on land , Earth Satyaurata divided among his three sons :
1. A Jyapeti assigned all regions north of the Himalayas ( This agrees with the territory that extended Japheth )
Two . A Sharma (Shem ) gave the southern country .
Three . But C'harma cursed because when on one occasion when the old monarch was accidentally intoxicated with liquor , made ​​from fermented rice strong , C'harma had laughed at him. Is the Biblical account with the appropriate names phonetically to their culture !

· Interpretation of the Greek tradition : 

For the Greek tradition , the Flood is a fact that did not affect everyone , but only to the mythical Atlantis [12 ] ( According to the myth destroyed by an earthquake and then submerged in the ocean waters , in what could have been a tsunami ) . According to Plato , Atlantis disappeared 12,000 years ago as punishment for the wickedness of man. The people of Atlantis had been " victims of the worst vices." These people , once immensely prosperous , lost favor with Zeus for "practicing most brutal indecency " and people became "totally obnoxious , full of boundless greed and drunk with power . " Then Zeus decided to punish them . Thanks to the intercession of Prometheus [ 13 ] were able to survive the catastrophe the right Decalión , his wife Pyrrha , your children and pets pigs , horses, etc. . and further including wild animals such as lions and snakes , etc .... His shelter was a large chest in which sailed for nine days and nine nights "with the water coming out of the earth and the sea over" , another direct reference to water from the " Abyss " . According to the stories , the chest stranded on Mount Parnassus or Olympus. By opening a crack in Earth, water was drained by it. The earth will swallow the water, a return to their underground tanks , what we now know as ground water [ 14 ] . Decalion and Pyrrha threw stones which became men and women depending on who pitched. Some scientists believe that the eruption of the Santorini Island [ 15 ] ( in the Aegean 1627 /8 BC - that wiped out much of the present island ) , is linked to the myth of Atlantis. The eruption could have been the cause of the tsunami which caused a serious crisis to the culture of Crete on the same date . According to Egyptian records of the time, the volcanic cloud produced nine days of " shadow " in Egypt .
· Interpretation of Quranic tradition : The Qur'anic version is very similar to the Bible . Speaking of Noah and his family and a flood that covered the earth , which survived in the ark. The catastrophe described in the following terms : " the surface of the earth boiled (The Book of Enoch also refers to the emergence of high temperature hot springs ) ... The ark moved through the waves like mountains." The tragedy ended when Allah commanded the earth to swallow the water (This should be understood that a portion of the waters returned to their underground tanks ) and Heaven rains stop . Finally, the ark landed on Mount Djudi [ 16 ] .
Persian tradition Interpretation : A Persian legend speaks of the survivors were Yilma , thousand couples , animals and birds. Instead of the usual ark, took shelter in a shelter or underground fortress made ​​of mud , a " long horse race " , provided with food , fruits , plants and animals , but not bad people , or people or uneven teeth lepers. They were the survivors of that wave of earthquakes, floods and fires that destroyed the world .


[1 ] Stage Greek logitud measure pattern taken as the length of the stage of Olympia , equivalent to 174.125 m .
[2 ] Mountains of Kurdistan, Ararat Mountains .

[3 ] There are numerous parallels and similarities between Utnapishtim and Noah.
[4 ] It may have been a king Gilgamesh late Second Period Early Dynastic ( XXVII century about a.) Http:// .
[5 ] The name Erech, Uruk may have evolved and now Iraq .
[6 ] With either of the two dates ( 2800 or 1800 a.) The date of writing the poem would be prior to the writings of Moses . So that the dispute which copy history . It makes sense to think that they are two different versions of the same story , the oral origin is lost in time.
[7 ] In Sumerian En = Lord, lil = wind ( spirit ) Lord of Spirits .
[8 ] Lord of the Earth .
[9 ] Zizudra means "life of long days " and belongs to the document Eridu Genesis . BIBLE COMMENTARY HISPANOAMERICANO , page 176.

[10 ] Utnapistin means " find life " in a reference to eternity , because in the Epic of Gilgamesh the gods grant immortality. BIBLE COMMENTARY HISPANOAMERICANO , page 176
[11 ] The Puranas are Hindu religious writings .

[12 ] See Appendix . All mythical and historical elements that occurred 12,000 BC Plato , merge into a story that exalts Athens , the home of the philosopher. It was the custom of the Ancients " Enlarge " things to gain prestige : All Patriarchs were sons of gods , which obviously adds shine to be the son of ordinary people. Similarly , more prestigious to win a battle demigods , beginning the story with the phrase : " A long, long time , in a faraway place beyond the Pillars of Hercules , our hero and his brave Mengano Athenians defeated the gods of Atlantis " . Needless to say that Athens did not exist until recently as 1600 . C .... In this type of " Fantastic Stories " makes no difference that makes 900 , 9,000 or 20,000 years.
[ 13 ] Titan in Greek mythology , friend of men , whom they eloped gift of the gods.
[ 14 ] The water table (or water table , ground layer , water table , water table , water table) is the level by which the water flows underground. In their cycle , some of the water is filtered and fed to the water table , also called aquifer. The aquifer can be confined when materials are waterproof ground up , creating both a floor and a ceiling that keeps the liquid at the same levels underground ( like a pipe) . However, the aquifer can also be free when they wrap materials are permeable , so water has no floor or ceiling and can emerge on the surface ( as happens in the Ibera Marshes ) . The water tables are found throughout the world , with the difference that in some locations is present to a significant depth , while others are close to the surface (or on it) . In short, the whole basin aquifer is underground water, while the water table is the limit and level at which water is found beneath the surface. % C3 % A1tico .
[ 15 ] In the part that was left of the island, stood a city that today is a tourist place visited.

[ 16 ] Finally the ark touched down in Chudi , but there are different views on whether this refers to Mount Cudi (or Judi ) , located in Turkey, or simply to " a high place " . ( Quran 11:44) And he said, "Swallow , land, your water! Escampa , honey! " And the water was absorbed , the order was fulfilled and settled in Chudi . And he said, "Back the unjust people "


Entradas populares de este blog

NEWS. Второй зверь. By Fabian Massa.

Reflexión. La parábola de las 10 vírgenes. By Fabian Massa

Reflexión. El que tenga oídos para oír, que oiga. By Fabian Massa