Translated from Spanish to English with Google Translator.
Thanks to the mighty hand of God , the Ark and its occupants reached their destination , somewhere in the Kurdish mountains.
When the water level dropped sufficiently, all descended from the ship, men and animals (Genesis 8.16 to 19). Noah offers a sacrifice of praise to the Lord ( Genesis 8.20 ) and God renews the covenant with Noah , bless his descendants and gives them control and dominion over all the earth and what is in it. In previous chapters we have analyzed the differences between the world before and after the flood and we can say that according to Scripture, that God made an earth and a new heaven to give the to life another chance.
Once Noah and his children went down the Ark, were organized and began to multiply . Each of the three children started a family . They were the only residents of a deserted Earth and had to redo everything. The Flood had swept everything , but in this " New Beginning " of humanity , Noah and his sons not starting from scratch : They brought a cultural and technological " baggage" that would make a new complex civilization arises in relatively few years . As we saw timely construction of the Ark ( although designs , guidance and support clearly gave the Lord ) could only be done by a human group that was technologically prepared for such an undertaking . Much of the technology (both in knowledge - arts and sciences - as tools and material goods ) would be the main assets of the new humanity : Livestock, agriculture , metallurgy , carvings, yarn, wood treatments , uses of plant resins , use of roots for medicine and chemicals (perfumes , ointments , etc.).
Knowledge of the arts such as music, building musical instruments , singing, dancing, paintings, carvings , engravings . They had an organized language, although , as we saw early, there is no evidence of a written language.
The flood had fallen and the highest parts of the Kurdish Montes asomarían like islands above a water landscape to the horizon .
At first the Ark will be served as a refuge and warehouse , as the high mountain land is useless for agriculture. For a long time men have followed animals and eating what brought on board .
Why not have found the remains of the Ark ? We assume that the wood of the Ark would have been used to feed the first fires , and also for the construction of shelters downhill when the land was drier. In the midst of a devastated territory Fit timber was a well priceless . Provisions are exhausted and needed to have start planting food , Noah began to cultivate the land and planted a vineyard , says Genesis 9.20 and suppose further sown cereals , fruit and other crops to feed. As we saw in Chapter III timely , crops such as barley , wheat and others were spread by wind and animals.
In Chapter II we note that the origins of sheep, goat , pig and cow back to long ago in the Near East, from where it spread around the world , giving rise to the subspecies we know today. As humans, animals and plants multiplied , they were occupying the land in Genesis XI tells the story that had migrated from the Ararat Mountains to Shinar (Gen. 11.2) in lower Mesopotamia and settled there . Many scholars relate to the descendants of Noah as the founders of the first post-Flood civilization , the Sumerians
2, but it happened that when men moved eastward , they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there . Genesis 11 Reina Valera Contemporánea ( RVC )
In the Near East, which formed the southern part of ancient Mesopotamia (between the alluvial plains of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers ) called Shinar in the Bible, historically known as Sumer or Sumeria. In Sumer the first and oldest civilization in the world was developed. According to scholars , the people of Sumer and have left us many beautiful inventions like the wheel ( beyond a single machine) and fundamental part of others, like the potter's wheel , the cart , treadmill and other machines ; basically a gear is a wheel with a toothed rim which engages a wheel , also toothed , which enables the transmission of movement .
The cuneiform culture of Sumer (photo top)
1 Now the whole earth had one language and one speech. Genesis 11 ( RV 95 )
The Hebrew word translated words is Dabar means language. This is a very valuable data and need to get it right : the same language is much more than having a common language , is part of the same culture : a common origin, history and tradition , the same way of thinking, scales values, tastes , foods, folklore ( dance and music ) , religious ideas, etc. . Same culture is a very strong bond , even to resist God's command to " replenish the earth " .
In the same way that people in Tokyo have the same understanding of life , also share language : culture, traditions, and a particular "vision" of things.
The language of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the V millennium . C. By the mid- nineteenth century, were discovered in archaeological excavations layer where they were from most of the cuneiform documents , and then the palaces , statues , treasures and weapons of the great Assyrian kings were discovered which news had biblical references . The study of culture is called Assyrian Assyriology .
Archaeologists excavating work continued under the Assyrian and discovered other layer , showing an earlier culture, a millennium old , from southern Mesopotamia , the archaeological site of Babel, ( discovered in 1902). Scholars noted that while there were similarities between the Babylonian and Assyrian writings , there were also differences. The conclusion reached is that both languages starting from a common Semitic language ( related to Hebrew and Aramaic ) who later called Akkadian . This language was spoken in Mesopotamia since the end of the third Millennium . C.
The writings are found on clay, was marked in the soft clay with a sharp instrument. As a result , the writing was shaped wedges. These wedge-shaped styling lines represent primitive line drawings (pictograms ) . Therefore, necessarily before the Akkadian language , had an ancestor language : This language was Sumerian denominated by the historical- geographical region where the samples were found.
Sumerian was a pictographic language, to give a simple explanation , the Sumerians were easy to communicate what they wanted drawings. Today pictographic language road signs to indicate used . This language has the advantage that it can be understood even by people who speak different languages because the message is drawing ( pictograph ) . However, the major drawback of the pictographic script is not used to translate abstract notions.
One of the first uses was given to pictographic writing by the Sumerians was to manage goods, it was indicated few pigs , donkeys or sacks of grain received the Sumerian temple of a given subject . In the excavated archaeological site of Uruk found over a thousand pictographic tablets , most commercial transactions and administrative data. Later, the Sumerians began writing on clay plates showed wedge-shaped features , combining phonics what is drawing the line. Cuneiform writing is thus a whole and in each of its elements, both pictographic and ideographic or phonetic .
Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 2000 . C , but continued to be used as a sacred , ceremonial and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the beginning of the Christian era. The Sumerian cuneiform is the oldest found so far and have found a lot of writing. Sumerian is not related to the other languages of the area and is considered a language isolate . (See image 19.3)
The cuneiform writing strokes were later used for Akkadian, Ugaritic and Elamite . It was also adapted for Indo-European languages like Hittite , which had a similar but separate Egyptian hieroglyphic writing of the latter .
The Sumerian language remained as a liturgical language in later empires Akkadian ( Semitic ) and Babylonian ( Semitic ) , ceasing to be a common language ( frank ) . The Sumerian texts later exerted an influence on the literature of the region , including Hebrew . Among the most important works of Sumerian literature is the Epic of Gilgamesh.
To facilitate the understanding of the above so far , we see the following scheme:
SUMERIAN : Now the whole earth had one language and one speech . Gen. 11.1 , that is, all mankind were in one place ( Sumer ) and had the same culture .
Archaic Sumerian 3600-3200 B.C.
An event that changes this situation occurs: the confusion of tongues at Babel, marking the end of the homogeneity of the Sumerian culture . The confusion of tongues brought about a major conflict that caused families were divided by Patriarch :
I. The Japhethites would have dispersed north to Anatolia (Turkey ) islands in the Mediterranean and from there to Europe on the one hand and on the other eastward through Armenia, Persia ( Iran) crossed the Indus River and invaded India today . So the languages derived from these regions are called Indo-European .
II . The Camitas occupied the region of Syria and Palestine , extending subsequently occupied Egypt and Africa.
III . The Semites won the right to "remain" in Sumer , occupying the central Mesopotamia ( Akkadian ) , northern Mesopotamia (Assyria ) Region Media ( Medes ) ( southern Iran on the border with Iraq ) and the Arabian Peninsula . I mean, they did not move from their territory. This subject will study in greater depth in later chapters .
Evolution of languages from 3200 to 1000 BC dispersing linked Nations.
Afro-Asiatic proto- languages to the 3,200 BC
The first language to be written after the Sumerian was the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic with a type of pictographic writing . Modern Sumerian 3200-2900 a. C. By 2000 B.C. ( Birth of Abraham) was replaced in Mesopotamia by the Akkadian ( Semitic language ) becoming the Sumerian one used only in religious liturgy of Babylon to the first century of our era dead language.
Protosemíticas Orientales: Ugaritic , Hebrew, Canaanite / / Protosemíticas Western Arab , Aethiopica , Aramaic .
African Languages : Egyptian, Berber , Chádicas , Omotic and Cushitic .
Proto - Indo-European, to the 3,200 BCE
Extending through Anatolia and the Mediterranean islands to the east and north of Iran to India in the west. To the north are going to Eastern and Western Europe .
Proto - Aryan - Greco - Armenian
Proto - Balto - Slavic - Germanic
Proto - Anatole - Tocharian
The people of Sumer or Shinar would have had the first heliocentric astronomical viewing . This truth would appear again only in 1500 BC he in Vedic culture (India ) . Also claimed that the solar system is constituted of five planets ( as only can be distinguished only that amount without optical instruments). They had a solar calendar of 12 months of 30 days each, exactly the same as we use today .
According to scholars and specialists, the Sumerians also made important advances in mathematics , having developed number systems based on number six. On this basis invented a clock divided into twelve hours on and twelve hours to box , being sixty minutes every hour and every minute 60 seconds.
They also set up legal and administrative systems with judicial courts, prisons and the first city-states .
Again, the appearance of writing , mathematics, led to the trades, the flourishing of agriculture, livestock and metallurgy boosted economic growth and this in turn propelled a new population explosion , which is reflected in multiplying prosperous cities . The conference , which brings us to the wagon completed the picture for the emergence of trade and monetary transactions. It is known that in the culture of Sumer were schools where reading and writing , mathematics and religion ensañaban . According to Samuel Noah Kramer , a scholar who has studied the Sumerian written documents discovered in the ruins of Uruk. These are small tablets ' pictographic ', most of them as a bureaucratic and administrative agendas. But a number of these tablets keep lists of words to be memorized , so that they can be handled with ease . Already in 3000 B.C. Sumerian scribes thought in terms of teaching and study. In the years 1902 - 1903 were discovered in the ruins of the city of Shuruppak , cradle of Sumerian Noah , lots of ' textbooks ' dating from the year 2500 . C .
[1 ] "Testing the Ark " in Chapter XIII of the book.
[2 ] Animals eat grain and have swallowed whole , leaving whole in the stool , thus expanding crops in large areas fairly quickly .
[3 ] Shinar : 1. It is located between Baghdad and Babylon , the land of Shinar must have understood the territories known as Sumer and Akkad , later called Babylon. NEW ILLUSTRATED BIBLE DICTIONARY NELSON , Ed Caribbean: Sinar , page 1087.
[4 ] The term " Sumerian " also to all speakers of the Sumerian language applies . In this region the Sumerian language was called Kengi ( ki ), equivalent to Akkadian Sumeri mat , that is, the "land of Sumer " or Shinar was the land where they chose to settle families that migrated from the mountains of Ararat and its vicinity after the Flood .
[5 ] Floodplains : Geology Definition: Soil formed from materials deposited in relatively recent times , especially for water characterized by low or no modification of the starting materials , by processes of soil formation , soil composed of material transported by running water that forms the main river bed and most of the deltas.
[6 ] A Brief History of the Sumerians , Ana Martos Rubio. Ed Nowtilus . Page 60
[7 ] Word: Strong # 1697 Heb . Dabar of # 1696 language , history, information (Today we would say culture).
[8 ] Exegetical and Explanatory Commentary on the Bible Jamieson , Fausset & Brown , Ed Crossway . Page 29
[9 ] A pictograph is a sign ( a mnemonic drawing) represents schematically a symbol, real object or figure.
[10 ] The History Begins At Sumer by Samuel Noah Kramer. Ed Orbis . Pages 183-184
[11 ] http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escritura_pictogr % C3 % A1fica
[12 ] Uruk was an ancient city on the eastern bank of the Euphrates , 225 km SSE of Baghdad today . At its peak, around 3000 B.C. Uruk had a walled area of approximately 6.5 km ², its population is estimated at 50,000 to 80,000 . Uruk was probably the birthplace of the cylinder seal and the birth of the calculation and accounting. Oldest remains preserved of Uruk are dated between 5300 and 4600 BC
[13 ] The History Begins At Sumer by Samuel Noah Kramer. Ed Orbis . pages 183
[15 ] An isolated language is a natural language ( ethnic language ) having no proven link to any other language or family of languages , ie a unique language of its kind .
[16 ] The Akkadian is an extinct Semitic language today ( do not talk more) , spoken in ancient Mesopotamia mainly by Assyrians and Babylonians in the second millennium BC In his time becomes lingua franca (ie a common language from culturally and commercially in the region ) in the Middle East. It is written using a system derived from the Sumerian cuneiform . The name derives from the capital city of Akkad Akkadian Empire founded by Sargon the year 2335 BC
[17 ] The Ugaritic is an extinct Semitic language spoken in Ugarit (Syria ) to 2000 BC It is known by the large number of remains found in 1928 , with cuneiform tablets which formed its own alphabet. Ugaritic has very similar to the old Arab (also Semitic ) and Akkadian grammatical features .
[18 ] The Elamite is a dead language that was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire (Southern Iran at the border with Iraq.) Some authors believe it is related to the Dravidian languages ( South India) . The Old Elamite (linear ) has its first testimony in 2,900 BC, is believed to have developed from the emerging Sumerian writing .
[19 ] The Hittite is dead ancient language spoken by the Hittites , a people who created an empire in northern Central Anatolia (now Turkey ) . The language was spoken about 1400 to 1100 BC
[20 ] The hieroglyphic writing system was invented by the ancient Egyptians. It was used in Egypt since 3,200 BCE up to 400 A.D. It is the oldest after the Sumerian written language. The hieroglyphs are symbols that depict an idea and word at a time .
[21 ] It became a dead language ( a language that is not spoken naturally and is only used for scientific or religious purposes ) , the same case of the Latin language of the Roman Empire sank into oblivion , except for the liturgy of the Catholic Church and sciences such as botany and zoology .
[22 ] The Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic family , with nearly 30 centuries of written history , ie from 1,000 BC Obviously in such a long time the language has undergone processes of linguistic changes that are reflected in the pronunciation , grammar and vocabulary . It can be said that with 3000 years of history writing is a relatively newer than other Middle Eastern language : There are records of Sumerian writing 5,600 years of Egyptian archaic 5,200 years, 4,000 years from the Akkadian .
[23 ] We return to this issue in the following chapters.
[24 ] There are records from 3600 B.C. but the culture that comes from long ago yet remains undefined .
[25 ] Protosemítica Language : It is what gives rise to all the Semitic languages.
[26 ] Helios, gr. Sol , central = middle. The sun as the center of the solar system .
[27 ] Samuel Noah Kramer (Kiev September 28, 1897 -USA , November 26, 1990 ) was one of the leading authorities in Assyriology and SUMEROLOGÍA .
[28 ] Shuruppak was an ancient Sumerian city. His remains are located on the site of Tell Fara , a 200Km . Baghdad and 70 km from Babylon.
[29 ] The history begins in Sumer by Samuel Noah Kramer. Ed Orbis . Page 27
Flood, Noah, Bible, Sumer , Babylonia , Treasures of Wisdom, Fabian Massa , writer .
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