+ Study. Synoptic Gospels. Introduction. By Fabian Massa.

Translated from Spanish to English with Google Translator.




A. Introduction

 1. The reason for the title
Let's start by analyzing the Synoptic Gospel words :


     a. I gospel

Εὐ from Greek "good" and αγγέλιον ( angelion ) ' message ' can be translated as " Good News " . This word is first used by Paul in 1 Corinthians 15.1 ( Probable date AD 57 ) :

1 And now , brothers , I want to remind you of the gospel I preached to you, which you received and on which stand firm . NIV

The good news that Paul had preached to them was that : ... Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures , 4 that he was buried , that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures , 5 and that he appeared to Cephas , then to the twelve. 6 After that He appeared to more than five hundred brothers at once , most of whom are still living , though some have died . 7 And all the apostles appeared to James , later, 8 and finally , as to one untimely born , he appeared also to me. 1 Cor 15.3 - 8 NIV .

The good news is that the penalty for our sins was paid by Christ on the Cross of Calvary, who died and rose to heaven to sit on the Throne of God. Who believe the gospel and repent of their sins will be saved. Similarly the word " Gospel " appears in :

· Marcos ( 1.15)
· Matthew ( 4.17)
· In the preaching of Peter in Acts 2.38 and 3.39.

In total , the term "gospel" is used 76 times in the New Testament. Sixty times the word appears in Paul's letters . It also appears in the Book of Acts. No mention of the term in the Gospel of John or the Lucas is made.


     b . synoptic

The term " synoptic " comes from the Greek words συν ( syn ) "together " and οψις ( opsomai ) "see" . Because the gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke narrate facts common and sometimes very similarly .
In 1776 , the German biblical scholar Johan Griesbach ( 1745-1812 ) presented his book Synopsis on three gospels mentioned . Synopsis In the three Gospels appeared in printed form parallel columns , thus facilitating its overall look or simultaneously.
The Gospels tell basically the sayings and deeds of Jesus during his ministry , but each Gospel has its peculiarities. One can say that the sources were common to all three gospels :

a. Life and Message.
b . The preaching of the Apostles
c . The oral tradition of Christian communities
d . Collections of sayings and deeds of Jesus .
e . The mysterious and never found the hypothetical " Q document " [1 ]

The first to be written was that of Mark , which served as a model to Matthew and Luke [2 ].


When we read the same story in parallel in the three Gospels , we see that there is :

a. Large overlap between them : Some texts have exactly the same phrases .

b . But also note that we have totally different points.

c . Ons in information: Details not provided one of them, gives another author . So it is advisable to study the texts with their parallels in the Synoptics, in order to have a more rounded idea of ​​the occurrence.

The convergence between the three (or sometimes between two ) Gospels be evidence that the authors have used the same source , or would have copied each other . Moreover , differences indicate rather that the Gospels were written with a degree of independence from each other, since each author gave his work a distinctive profile , purpose and routed by a particular audience.


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[ 1] It is a hypothetical collection of the sayings and deeds of Jesus, which would have provided data from the Gospels of Matthew and Luke that they did not remove the Gospel of Mark , which was undoubtedly one of the sources of the other two . Some of the most relevant fragments of the New Testament is believed to originate in Q ( Q Reconstruction of the book by the International Q Project) : For example Beatitudes , Love the enemy, Golden Rule , The Speck and the beam test good person , Parable of the Two builders , Parable of the lost sheep .
[2 ] The "Theory of the two sources " (Mark and Q ) was presented by Christian Weisse and elaborated later by P Wermle (both German theologians of the nineteenth century ) .

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