Translated from Spanish to English with Google translator.

PARABLE [1] GOOD SHEPHERD. Text: John 10.1-21. Version: Jerusalem Bible [2]. By Fabian Massa.

1. Context area of ​​Juan section 10.1-6

It is very important to understand the cultural context, socio-economic, historical, folkloric and also consider the original language of texts by studying the scriptures. Many ignore this, but in this brief study will appreciate that the details make the good interpretation and understanding of the Word.

Sheep breeding in Palestine.

Sheep farming was one of the main economic activities in Judea. The reason is that the central part of Judaea consists of a high plateau about 50 km long by an average of 20 to 25 km wide, this area is semi-arid, poor soil and low rainfall. The grass that grows there is hard and unfit for cattle, so practically the only economically viable activity is grazing sheep. This is a very important fact because it is the cause that many times God to his people is directed with metaphors and allusions to pastoral activities:

to. "The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want ", etc. (Ps. 23).
b. "So we thy people and sheep of your pasture, will praise you forever" (Ps. 79:13).
c. "O Shepherd of Israel, listen; thou that leadest Joseph like a flock "(Ps. 80: 1).
d. "For he is our God; we the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand "(Ps. 95: 7).
and. "I will feed my sheep, and I will give them lie down, saith the Lord" (Ezek. 34:15).
F. The sheep are inclined to backslide and consequently need a shepherd to guide them, as seen clearly in Ps. 119: 176; Is. 53: 6.

God uses figures and those that are clear for people, since their interest was always man to understand his words.

In cities, breeders were organized cooperative way: They built large corporate corrals where the animals were together. These buildings were surrounded by a wall, were covered and closed sections, plus a single door guarded by a goalkeeper. In the winter, the shepherds kept their flocks in the EU fold. Porter just let it go to the pastors of his knowledge, so anyone who jumped the wall, was obviously a thief.

The relationship Shepherd - herd

Sheep farming in Palestine is very different from what is in the West: A careful sheep can live between 10 and 12 years, because they are raised for their wool, not for meat these animals had many years of being with the same shepherd, who called them by name. The sheep knew his caregiver. The relationship between man and his flock is quite similar to ours with a pet.
This special relationship shepherd with his sheep drastically changes the way of grazing, while in the West the Pastor goes behind the flock, aided by dogs to guide it where it wants to go, in Palestine (where dogs still are today frowned upon) the shepherd goes before the flock and the sheep follow.

2. Context scope of section John 10.7-9

In this passage, Jesus refers to the pens that are in the meadow, which consisted of a rudimentary building stones of medium height, generally circular in shape and with a single input-output, which shepherds used to keep sheep in summer nights. The pastor stands at the entrance and brings in a sheep, a fail time for review. Once you have entered all the shepherd curls up at the entrance, fulfilling the function of door and he says ... 10.7. "Truly, truly, I say: I am the door of the sheep." And also: "9. I am the door; if one enters through me will be safe; will come in and out and find pasture. "

Sheep farming in Palestine is very different from what is in the West:

As we saw, refined sheep can live between 10 and 12 years and are raised for their wool, not for meat. The relationship between man and his flock is quite similar to ours with a pet. This approach makes it different grazing West.

The biblical context of the Good Shepherd paroimia or Redil is all chapter 9 of John, where Jesus tells returned sight to a man born blind eyes smearing mud. (John 9.1-12). The miraculous healing occurred on the Sabbath, why the Pharisees were offended and said: "16 ..." This man is not from God, he does not keep the Sabbath. "But others asked," How can a sinner do such signals? "John 9.16 NIV. Religious understand that if Jesus did not behave according to their parameters holiness, the miracles he came from Beelzebub, not God (John 9.16 parallel passage in Matthew 12.24).

The Pharisees Investigate the blind to inquire how and by whom was healed, not believing that he was born blind sent by their parents, who also interrogated. Parents did not even want to name the Christ, knowing that if they did would be expelled from the synagogue. (John 9.13-23).

The Pharisees again interrogate the now not blind for 2nd time, a discussion between them and the beggar, who ends up being expelled from the synagogue (John 9.34) occurs.
When Jesus hears about this, he goes in search of the beggar and reveals to him as "The Son of Man" and declares that the Pharisees are "spiritually blind" and sinners for not wanting to see the Truth. (John 9.35-41). The proof of the connection between Chapter 9 and paroimia John 10.1-21 is precisely verse 21: "But others said," These words are not of a demoniac. Can a demon open the eyes of the blind? "

Then there is a stark contrast throughout Chapter 9:

1. Jesus without asking anything blind man miraculously healed, however the Pharisees question their parents and twice to finish expelling him.
2. Jesus when he learns of this goes in search of the beggar.

Meaning of symbols
The door Jesus himself (verses 7 and 9)
Israel sheepfold (clearly implied in verse 16)
Those sheep for whom Christ died, those destined to be saved; those who obtain eternal life; those who hear the voice of Jesus and follow him (10: 4, 9, 11, 14, 28).
Pastor Jesus (the Good Shepherd 10:11, 14)
Flock whole group of bran (a herd, 10:16).

Text John 10.1-6

1. "Truly, truly, I say: who does not enter by the door into the sheepfold, but climbs in some other way, is a thief and a robber; 2. but he who enters by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. 3. To him the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice; his sheep and calls them one by one and leads them out. 4. When he has brought all his own, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him because they know his voice. 5. But do not follow a stranger, but will flee from him, for they know not the voice of strangers. "6 Jesus told them this parable, but they did not understand what he was talking about.
It is curious that they did not understand what he was talking about them, where they had their existence based on grazing, why, as we saw earlier, the figure of God as Good Shepherd is so rooted in the Bible.

1. Ps. 23
2. Ps. 79:13
3. Psalm 80: 1.
4. Psalm 95: 7.
5. Ez. 34:15
6. Ps. 119: 176
7. Is. 53: 6.

Obviously Jesus is the "Good Shepherd" who knows his sheep, who truly listen to his voice, and the robbers are the Pharisees, who do not know the sheep or are interested in them.
The sheep hear the voice (the Pastor); his sheep and calls them one by one and leads them out. 4. When he has brought all his own, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him because they know his voice.

Text John 10.7-21

As they did not understand, Jesus continues:

7. Then Jesus said to them again, "Truly, truly, I say I am the door of the sheep.
8. All who have come before me are thieves and robbers; but the sheep did not hear them.
9. I am the door; if one enters through me will be safe; will come in and out and find pasture.
10. The thief comes to steal, kill and destroy. I have come that they may have life and have it more abundantly.
11. I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd gives his life to the sheep.
12. But the hireling, who is not a shepherd, whose own the sheep, sees the wolf coming and leaves the sheep and flees, and the wolf snatches them and scatters,
13. that it is a hireling and cares nothing for the sheep.
14. I am the good shepherd; and I know my sheep and mine know me,
15. as the Father knows me and I know the Father and give my life for the sheep.
16. I have other sheep that are not of this fold; them also I have to drive and listen to my voice; and there shall be one flock, one shepherd. (We Gentiles)
17. That is why the Father loves me, because I lay down my life, to take it again.
18. No one takes it from me; I give it voluntarily. I have power to lay it down and power to take it again; this is the command I received from my Father. "
19. There was dissension again among the Jews for these words.
20. Many of them said, 'He has a demon and is mad. Why do you listen to? "
21. But others said, "These words are not of a demoniac. Can a demon open the eyes of the blind? "

In this second section, Jesus returns to give them the same education, otherwise, in an effort to understand it. The images are very clear:

1. Jesus is the Good Shepherd who gives (nobody takes it away) for all humanity (this is a first for the Jew, who understood that the Messiah was only for Israel).
2. Religious then (the Pharisees) as religious today, just want to take economic advantage of the sheep.
3. In verse with the phrase 10.10 The thief comes to steal, kill and destroy not refer to Satan, but to the Pharisees. Whereupon we must understand that religious are equally or more dangerous than Satan. Hendriksen says: The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; Christ comes to have life and to have plenty. The thief is the Pharisee, as explained above (see about 10: 1). Note the progressive order: steal, kill, destroy. In Mt. 23:15 is clear that these religious leaders killed and spiritually destroyed the people who had stolen. The opposite is to kill and destroy life. And the opposite of the thief is the good shepherd, Christ. This is why Jesus says, "I came that they may have (ie, the people; here, sheep) life (see on 3:16) and to have plenty." Juan Commentary page 294.

4. Verse 10.21 closes the circle that begins in John 9.1

Synthesis and conclusion 10: 1-21

      I. THE GOOD SHEPHERD: The Son of Man, who reveals himself as such. His enemies see it as maniacal demon-possessed. In this allegory Jesus describes himself as the good shepherd, as opposed to the bad shepherds who hurt the sheep (bearing in mind undoubtedly the Pharisees who had expelled the man whom Jesus had cured of his blindness) . The Eastern shepherd who in the morning is come into the fold where they sleep their sheep. The gatekeeper opens, and then the pastor brings his own sheep calling them by the name he has given them. Then, a little later, we see the shepherd leads the sheep to pasture, and calling them makes them feel their constant presence. At night the shepherd returns with the sheep and protects against wolves. He is willing, if necessary, to risk his own life to defend them. As it is true shepherd is deeply interested in their sheep.
   II. THE THIEF OF SHEEP: Thieves (strangers, employees) do not own the sheep, only interested in obtaining an economic advantage. They are the opposite (in the allegories and parables Jewish teachers always worked with contrasts, to mark well the differences) of the Good Shepherd. Hendriksen says: "They're trying to seize the sheep by intimidation, climb the fence to get into the fold. They try to lure sheep through imitation (false philosophy, false religion, false ethics). When you are approaching the danger, stray sheep. They are totally selfish, fitting symbol of the Pharisees of Jesus' day and many false leaders in all periods of history. " See Hendriksen, comment Juan, page 300.
The Pharisees manipulated the ignorant people based on fear. It needed to keep people in their condition not understand the word, in order to rob him. The Pharisees worked their "image" of "Holy Men," "Anointed, wise and prudent" in the things of God, were located in an inaccessible pedestal for ordinary people. They not accept criticism or questions: They self-proclaimed the "Chosen".
Just like do "Anointed," "apostles" and "prophets" False Prosperity Gospel today. Week 70 is about to begin, awake you who sleep !!!

Parable of the Good Shepherd

[1] This text is known as the Parable of the Good Shepherd, but technically is not a parable but a paroimia, a figurative said or extended metaphor, an allegory.
Allegory: Allegory aims to provide an image which has no image so it can be better understood by the generality. Draw the abstract, make "visible" which is only conceptual, it follows a didactic purpose. Thus, a blind woman with a scale, is allegory of justice, and a skeleton is provided with scythe allegory of death. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alegor%C3%ADa
[2] http://www.bibliacatolica.com.br/la-biblia-de-jerusalen/juan/10/


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