Study. Studying a book of the entire Bible. Introduction to Galatians. By Fabian Massa

Translated from Spanish to English with Google translator.

On the epistle to the Galatians

My friends, to study an entire book of the Bible, it is necessary to have a Bible study, a Bible dictionary or General Comment. Or specialized book in question.
If you have only a Bible and none of the elements detailed above, do not worry. Today there are excellent free material on the Internet where you can find information, then I copy some used for the present study:

1. Many versions of the Bible (Protestant) in several languages
2. Site of the Catholic Bible. It has many versions (like Jerusalem and The Book of God's people, an equivalent version of our Good News, in easy language) and also the Latin Vulgate, a transliteration of the LXX and many other excellent versions.
3. electronic Match
4. Christian dictionary.

You can also having serious material, such as in the case of Galatians: % A1latas

For the present work, a NTV Bible, the NIV Study, the NIV Archaeological and textual Bible plus the links described above were used.
Points to consider to make a study of any book are:

1. Author
2. Date and place of writing
3. Recipients of the work
4. Details to Consider
5. Topics covered in the book and its purpose

Introduction to Galatians

1. Author
There is no doubt about the author of the Charter, for Paul it is awarded in Gal. eleven
Galatians 1
Greetings from Paul 1 I write, I, Paul. I was appointed apostle not by any group of people or any human authority, but by Jesus Christ Himself and God the Father, who raised Jesus from the dead.

2. Date and place of writing. [1]
There are two positions on date and place of writing, both are related to the possible recipients of the letter. The crux of the discussion is whether Paul refers to "Galatians" a:
to. An ethnic group of Celtic origin located in the South Central modern Turkey, known in those days of the Roman Empire "The Province of Asia". This group had migrated from the region called "Gaul" by the Romans. Galia included: Gaul (Latin: Gallia) is the Roman name given to a region of Western Europe currently occupied by France, Belgium, western Switzerland and parts of the Netherlands and Germany west of the Rhine also the British Isles. (Wales, Ireland and England) Current were populated by Celtic tribes. Thus, the Gallic word (Latin gallus) usually refers to the Celtic inhabitants of that region in ancient times and was mainly used by the Romans, who rarely Celts called this set of diverse tribes. The adjective (name connected with the place of settlement) was preserved through the ages only to the extent of land that today make up the country of France and even today still called Gallic to the French, and indeed Gallia (Greek Γαλλία) Modern Greek is the name of France. But the Gauls spread throughout Europe in Roman times, speaking Celtic languages ​​that had diverged into two groups. Besides the Gauls of present France, others had settled in the plains of northern Italy, in the province known as the Roman Gaul ("Galos this side of the Alps") to the Veneto and Istria. Other Gauls had emigrated crossing the Pyrenees to Iberia, leading also to the Celts when mixed with native Iberian substrate. Pay attention to the similarity between the words "Gal"; "Gallegos (Galician / Galicia) and Wales (South of England, also of Celtic origin) Both have Galician as the Welsh National Bagpipe instrument, an instrument that was already known in the first century being used by the Marine Romana. Nero also played the bagpipes. This ethnic group living in the north of the province of Galatia (Central Turkey).
They began to migrate to the southeast in the first part of s IV BC, they invaded Italy by 360 BC, Macedonia and Greece in 250 BC Entering to the same period in Asia Minor (Turkey and Middle East). They gradually expanded their territory by taking parts of Phrygia, Cappadocia and Pontus (ie mainland Greece map). Read more:

Galatians map of Europe and Asia Minor:

b. Paul refers to the inhabitants of the region of Galatia, with no difference by ethnicity.

Modern Turkey at the time of the first century was populated by people of Indo-European origin (descendants of Japheth) and became known as the "Greek Continental".

3. Recipients of the Charter: The Galatians [2].
Who were the Galatians? As we saw, there are two possible definitions:
to. Galatians as an ethnic group: In this case, we have the "Theory of North Galatia" he says to the Galatians Paul refers are an ethnic group, the Apostle would have founded these churches from their 2nd or 3rd Tour missionary (Acts. 16.6 and 18.23), since in these opportunities pass by North Galatia, written in the mid-50s AD
b. Galatians as inhabitants of the region of Galatia: In the second case the letter would have been written shortly after his 1st missionary journey (Hch.13.14 - 14.21 Psidia Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, cities that were in Southern Province Galatia) and would be first and oldest letter from the Apostle, before 50 AD This position is known as "The Theory of South Galatia."
The position is more scholars support the "Southern Theory" and consider that the letter was addressed to the people in Gral province of Galatia, the churches he founded Apostle. Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe.

"Galatia Map '. Published under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - 

4. Details to Consider
The names of the pagan gods have different names in different versions:

Hebrew Bible

1. Acts 19:24

2. Acts 19:27

3. Acts 19:28

4. Acts 19:34

5. Acts 19:35
Diana Romans, 1. Acts 14:12 Jupiter, 2. Acts 14:13 Jupiter and Mercury

Greek Bible
1. Acts 19:24 ARTEMIS

2. Acts 19:27

3. Acts 19:28

4. Acts 19:34

5. Acts 19:35
Artemis Greeks, 1. Acts 14:12 Zeus, 2. Acts 14:13 Zeus and Hermes

The names are in Latin version (Hebrew Bibles, RV, King James) while the translation from the Greek (Jerusalem and all Catholic, NIV, NLT, etc.) appear in the Greek version.
The Romans conquer politically and militarily to Greece, but Greece conquers the entire West from cultural and religious.

Other considerations to take into account (NIV Archaeological Bible).

to. Gal. 2.14 Gentiles to live as the Gentiles live ie without saving Jewish customs, especially restrictions on meals.
b. Gal. 3.24 Ayo: Slave personal assistant freeborn child or child of love. He had the function of caring and teaching, not as a teacher but as a caregiver.
c. Gal. 6.17 marks on the body: Scars mark identifying slaves or membership of the animals (Mark errs).

 5. Topics of Galatians.

                     I. INTRODUCTION AND SALUDO1.1-9
                  II. Paul defends his AUTHORITY 1.10-2.21
               III. Paul defends DOCTRINE OF FREEDOM 3-4
                IV. PAUL DEFENDS THE GOSPEL OF FREEDOM 5.1 - 6.10
to. Freedom in Christ 5.1-12
d. CONCLUSIÓN6.11-18
Excerpted from the Introduction to the NIV Archaeological Galatians.

Topics by chapter

Chapter 1
Galatians 1: 1 Paul begins the epistle by identifying himself as the author of the same and the usual reference to the divine origin of his apostolate. It is also a defense against attack Judaizing make your Apostolate, because according to the definition given Apostle Peter in Acts 1.22-23, it was necessary to have participated in all the Ministry of Jesus and witness the resurrection, Paul evidently conditions not met.
Galatians 1: 2 points to the churches of Galatia as recipients of the letter. According to the Theory of the South, are the Christian Churches founded by Paul after his 1st Missionary Journey.
Galatians 1: 3 Then, as usual in all the epistles that he wishes its partners recognize that grace and peace be with you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Galatians 1: 6-10 Here the purpose of the Charter is defined: Let them know the Galatians that they should not be deceived by the Judaizers. In this epistle the apostle defends his ministry and Freedom in Christ we have in the Ministry of Grace. If the attack of the Judaizers had succeeded, Christianity would not have gone from being a sect within Judaism and maybe one had remained, this was the real battle.
Galatians 1: 11-18 At this point, Paul introduces a biographical note in order to emphasize his apostolic independence. Emphasizes first that his gospel did not receive it from men but of Jesus Christ. This is a defense of his apostolate: it is as if Paul were saying, "I was not at the time of Jesus' ministry, does not participate in the days of His Resurrection, but if you saw and spoke to me on the road to Damascus" (Acts 9.3 ).

Shortly after he claims that after his experience in Damascus went to Arabia and only after three years went to Jerusalem to meet Cephas (Peter). This passage contradicts the parallel of Acts (Acts 9: 26-30), where the ascent to Jerusalem seem to be immediate or very close to his encounter with the Risen Christ. Perhaps it is a matter of who wanted to display or transmit Luke in Acts, but the fact is that the same Paul says in Galatians that between an act and another three years passed. Paul continually needs to distance himself from the other apostles (delayed his encounter three years) to justify himself in God. The perpetrator has things interested in enhancing the unity of Christianity (Paul immediately goes to Jerusalem).
Galatians 1:19 Paul mentions in this letter to "James the brother of the Lord", head of the Jerusalem community and one of the three "pillars" of the early church (Galatians 2: 9).

Episode 2
Galatians 2: 11-14 Tensions with communities appear in this passage where Paul recounts an incident occurred long ago with Peter in Antioch. Known is that Santiago was in favor of the observance of the Torah and not Pedro. It happened that some disciples of James arrived in Antioch, Peter behaved discreetly leaving the liberal behavior and pretended wearing a false observance. This behavior is what Paul admonished. Describing the conflict situation against Pedro contributes to the credibility of Paul as historiographical source.

Chapter 3
Galatians 3: 1-5 The reception of the Holy Spirit is a known fact in Christianity and Judaism. One consequence of the spread of Christianity beyond the sphere of influence of Judaism was receiving the Spirit by non-Jews, not law-abiding, as recounted in the conversion of the centurion Cornelius (Acts 10) . Paul in this chapter is the question of whether the Holy Spirit is received by Jewish law or the new law of love, through faith in Jesus Christ.
Galatians 3: 6-14 Paul uses the argument of the promise of Abraham to subordinate to it the fulfillment of the Torah.
Galatians 3: 19-29 The ceremonial law was only a means to bring the Jews to Christ. You do not need to sacrifice a lamb for the sins, that lamb was Jesus.

Chapter 4
Galatians 4: 13-15 This passage contains a biographical note about a disease he suffered while Paul evangelized Galatia and the nature of which has been much speculation. It has been said that could be some form of blindness, for what if you had been able, would have given me your eyes. In relation to other states this passage in 2 Corinthians 12: 7-10 where Paul says first have a thorn in the flesh and soon: I am pleased to diseases ... because I am strong when I look weak.

Chapter 5
Paul speaks of true freedom, not that it covers the desires of the flesh but to be slaves of Christ and speaks the slave of carnal desires will not inherit the kingdom of God as it does in Christ bears fruit. These will not be condemned by the law if they are driven by the Spirit.

Chapter 6
Surprising that in a letter that the law has not been considered just as positive, now talk about law of Christ. What law is it that Paul attributes to Christ and referred to in other passages of his letters (see Rom 8: 2; 1 Corinthians 9, 21)? It is true, of course, that the law of Christ is simply Love. But going a step further, you can also say that the law of Christ is Christ himself inasmuch as it has become our model and supreme rule of conduct.

 6. The purpose of Galatians.

Paul's defense of the freedom we have in Christ in the dispensation of grace. Brand constantly, both Galatians and leave everything written to the Dispensation of Law and its differences with the Gospel of Christ. Paul warns us of the ever vigilant "Judaizers" who come out of the way believers to dip into legalism and religiosity.


PICTURE "PaulusTarsus LKANRW" by LKA NRW. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons -

[1] Notes from the Bible NIV Archaeological, Introduction to Galatians + + Wiki Wikipedia Cristiano dictionary online.
[2] Notes from the Bible NIV Archaeological, Introduction to Galatians + + Wiki Wikipedia Cristiano dictionary online.

Introduction to Galatians
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